For decades, Pavlovian fear conditioning has been the dominant paradigm to study the amygdala.However, this paradigm is poorly suited to examine the relation between amygdala activity and behavior.Indeed, conditioning changes the likelihood that conditioned stimuli (CS) will elicit conditioned responses(CRs) making it difficult to disentangle whether training-induced alterations in activity are related to thevalence or identity of CSs, to the behaviors they elicit, or a mixture thereof. To circumvent these limitations,we will examine how amygdala activity controls different conditioned behaviors using a novel task, the Risk-Reward Interaction (RRI) task, which allows one to compare, in the same rats and neurons, activity relatedto different conditioned behaviors triggered by the same CS. The RRI task takes advantage of the rats'natural ability to associate places with behaviors. Rats are trained to respond to the same light CS indifferent ways depending on where the CS is presented. They learn that in some positions, the CS signalsreward availability and in others, an impending footshock. The footshock can be avoided passively oractively, depending on the rats' position with respect to the CS. Therefore, in Aim 1, we will determinewhether amygdala cells encode the location or valence of the CS, or the CRs they elicit, by simultaneouslyrecording neurons in different nuclei of the basolateral amygdaloid complex (BLA= lateral, LA + basolateral,BL + basomedial, BM) while rats perform the RRI task. We will compare the dependence of firing rates onCS location and type of conditioned behaviors on correct vs. error trials, allowing us to determine whetherthe same, different, or overlapping subsets of cells fire in relation to reward-seeking, freezing, activeavoidance, and passive avoidance. Then, in Aim 2, we will examine whether valence and behavior codingvaries as a function of the neurons' projection sites. Different BLA nuclei contribute projections to a varietyof cortical and subcortical sites, including nucleus accumbens, the prefrontal cortex, the mediodorsalthalamic nucleus, the ventromedial hypothalamus and central amygdala. To determine the projection sitesof the different subsets of cells identified in Aim #1, rats will be implanted with stimulating electrodes indifferent BLA projection sites while recording BLA cells in the RRI task. Finally, in Aim 3, we will testwhether specific subsets of BLA neurons, as defined by their projection sites and increased activity inrelation to particular behaviors, actually contribute to generate these behaviors. Here, building on the resultsof Aim 2, we will infuse CAV2-Cre in different projection sites of BLA nuclei and an AAV driving theexpression of NpHR or ChR2 in specific BLA nuclei. Then, by delivering light stimuli of the appropriatewavelength, we will test whether we can respectively block or facilitate different conditioned behaviors in theRRI task. Our pilot data imply that even after experience has led to the potentiation of some sensory inputsto LA neurons, their coupling to emotional behaviors is not fixed. After completing the above work, we planon examining the neural substrates of this flexibility, an endeavor of great translational significance.
|Effective start/end date||5/18/17 → 2/28/22|
- National Institutes of Health (NIH)