A modeling, control, sensing, and experimental overview of continuous wet granulation

Shashank Venkat Muddu, Rohit Ramachandran

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter


This chapter begins with a brief summary of the mechanics governing the wet granulation process. The shift toward Quality by Design methods and their application to continuous granulation, owing to industry trends and interest by regulatory agencies, has been reviewed. A literature survey has been presented on the experimental/processing work carried out in recent years, with a special emphasis on residence time distribution (RTD) experimentation techniques. The recent modeling works done at various scales, i.e., macroscale population balance modeling, mesoscale/particulate scale discrete element modeling, and overall processing line scale flowsheet modeling and simulation, have been detailed. The chapter concludes with the presentation of two case studies, each for twin-screw granulator and high shear granulator, respectively. The case studies present the authors' own work in the field of RTD experimentation, modeling, and parameter estimation.

Original languageAmerican English
Title of host publicationHow to Design and Implement Powder-to-Tablet Continuous Manufacturing Systems
Number of pages21
ISBN (Electronic)9780128134795
ISBN (Print)9780128134801
StatePublished - Jan 1 2022

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)
  • Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutics(all)


  • High shear granulator
  • Population balance modeling
  • Residence time distribution
  • Twin-screw granulator
  • Wet granulation


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