A unified theory of implicit attitudes, stereotypes, self-esteem, and self-concept

Anthony G. Greenwald, Laurie A. Rudman, Brian A. Nosek, Mahzarin R. Banaji, Shelly D. Farnham, Deborah S. Mellott

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

907 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

This theoretical integration of social psychology's main cognitive and affective constructs was shaped by 3 influences: (a) recent widespread interest in automatic and implicit cognition, (b) development of the Implicit Association Test (IAT; A. G. Greenwald, D. E. McGhee, & J. L. K. Schwartz, 1998), and (c) social psychology's consistency theories of the 1950s, especially F. Heider's (1958) balance theory. The balanced identity design is introduced as a method to test correlational predictions of the theory. Data obtained with this method revealed that predicted consistency patterns were strongly apparent in the data for implicit (IAT) measures but not in those for parallel explicit (self-report) measures. Two additional not-yet-tested predictions of the theory are described.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)3-25
Number of pages23
JournalPsychological review
Volume109
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 2002

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Social Psychology
Self Concept
Self Report
Cognition

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Psychology(all)

Cite this

Greenwald, A. G., Rudman, L. A., Nosek, B. A., Banaji, M. R., Farnham, S. D., & Mellott, D. S. (2002). A unified theory of implicit attitudes, stereotypes, self-esteem, and self-concept. Psychological review, 109(1), 3-25. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-295X.109.1.3
Greenwald, Anthony G. ; Rudman, Laurie A. ; Nosek, Brian A. ; Banaji, Mahzarin R. ; Farnham, Shelly D. ; Mellott, Deborah S. / A unified theory of implicit attitudes, stereotypes, self-esteem, and self-concept. In: Psychological review. 2002 ; Vol. 109, No. 1. pp. 3-25.
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A unified theory of implicit attitudes, stereotypes, self-esteem, and self-concept. / Greenwald, Anthony G.; Rudman, Laurie A.; Nosek, Brian A.; Banaji, Mahzarin R.; Farnham, Shelly D.; Mellott, Deborah S.

In: Psychological review, Vol. 109, No. 1, 01.2002, p. 3-25.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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