ACUTE TOXICITY OF PICRIC ACID AND PICRAMIC ACID TO RAINBOW TROUT, SALMO GAIRDNERI, AND AMERICAN OYSTER, CRASSOSTREA VIRGINICA

William L. Goodfellow, Dennis T. Burton, William C. Graves, Lenwood W. Hall, Keith R. Cooper

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

28 Scopus citations

Abstract

ABSTRACT Picric acid (2,4,6‐trinitrophenol) and picramic acid (2‐amino‐4,6‐dinitrophenol) are potential water pollutents due to a variety of industrial and munition uses. The possible impacts of picric and picramic acid to two recreationally and commercially important species, rainbow trout, Salmo gairdneri, and American oysters, Crassostrea virginica, were evaluated. Picramic acid was more toxic than picric acid to both species tested. The 96‐h LC50s for picric and picramic acids for rainbow trout were 109.6 and 46.2 mg/1, respectively. The 144‐h LC50s for picric and picramic acid for American oysters were 254.9 and 69.8 mg/1, respectively. Sublethal no growth EC50s and shell deposition EC50s for oysters showed that both compounds caused adverse effects at much lower concentrations than indicated by the LC50s. For example, the 144‐h shell deposition EC50s were 27.9 mg/1 for picric acid and 5.6 mg/1 for picramic acid. Sediment adsorbtion studies in estuarine water indicated that both compounds are not readily adsorbed which suggests that sediment would not play a major role as a sink in contaminated systems. Oysters, which filter large quantities of particulate matter, would more likely be affected by picric and picramic acids in the water column than by exposure to contaminated sediment.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)641-648
Number of pages8
JournalJAWRA Journal of the American Water Resources Association
Volume19
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - Aug 1983

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Water Science and Technology
  • Earth-Surface Processes
  • Ecology

Keywords

  • (KEY TERMS: acute toxicity; rainbow trout, Salmo gairdneri; American oyster, Crassostrea virginica; picric acid, 2,4‐6‐trinitrophenol; picramic acid, 2‐amino‐4,6‐dinitrophenol; nitrophenols.)

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