Antioxidant defense and hepatoprotection by procyanidins from almond (Prunus amygdalus) skins

Van Long Truong, Min Ji Bak, Mira Jun, Ah Ng Tony Kong, Chi Tang Ho, Woo Sik Jeong

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

20 Scopus citations


Procyanidins, polymeric flavan-3-ols, are known to possess antioxidant, antiatherogenic, and anticarcinogenic properties. In the present study, we investigated the role of almond (Prunus amygdalus) skin procyanidins (ASP) in regulating the protein expression of phase II detoxifying and antioxidant enzymes in HepG2 cells and acetaminophen (APAP)-treated hepatotoxic mice. Treatments of ASP significantly induced the expression of phase II enzymes including NAD(P)H:quinoneoxidoreductase 1, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase in the cells and mice. ASP also potently enhanced the expression of nuclear factor-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and antioxidant response element (ARE)-reporter gene activity in vitro. APAP-induced hepatotoxic markers including AST and ALT in mice were inhibited by ASP administration. However, regulation of upstream kinases by ASP was different between in vitro and in vivo models. Collectively, ASP could induce the activation of Nrf2/ARE-mediated phase II detoxifying/antioxidant enzymes but with differential regulation on upstream kinases between in vitro and in vivo.

Original languageAmerican English
Pages (from-to)8668-8678
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of agricultural and food chemistry
Issue number34
StatePublished - Aug 27 2014

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Chemistry(all)
  • Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)


  • ARE
  • MAPKs
  • Nrf2
  • Prunus amygdalus
  • acetaminophen
  • almond skin
  • antioxidant enzymes
  • cytoprotection
  • hepatotoxicity
  • procyanidins


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