Nitrogen mustard (NM) is a highly reactive bifunctional alkylating agent that induces inflammation, edema and blistering in skin. An important mechanism mediating the action of NM and related mustards is oxidative stress. In these studies a modified murine patch-test model was used to analyze DNA damage and the antioxidant/stress response following NM exposure in isolated epidermis. NM (20 μmol) was applied to glass microfiber filters affixed to a shaved dorsal region of skin of CD-1 mice. NM caused structural damage to the stratum corneum as reflected by increases in transepidermal water loss and skin hydration. This was coordinated with edema, mast cell degranulation and epidermal hyperplasia. Within 3 h of NM exposure, a 4-fold increase in phosphorylated histone H2AX, a marker of DNA double-stranded breaks, and a 25-fold increase in phosphorylated p53, a DNA damage marker, were observed in the epidermis. This was associated with a 40% increase in 8-oxo-2′-deoxyguanosine modified DNA in the epidermis and a 4-fold increase in 4-hydroxynonenal modified epidermal proteins. At 12 h post NM, there was a 3–75 fold increase in epidermal expression of antioxidant/stress proteins including heme oxygenase-1, thioredoxin reductase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione reductase, heat shock protein 27 and cyclooxygenase 2. These data indicate that NM induces early oxidative epidermal injury in mouse skin leading to an antioxidant/stress response. Agents that enhance this response may be useful in mitigating mustard-induced skin injury.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Molecular Biology
- Clinical Biochemistry
- Pathology and Forensic Medicine
- DNA damage
- Mouse epidermis
- Oxidative stress