Antipsychotic Use Among Youth in Foster Care Enrolled in a Specialized Managed Care Organization Intervention

Thomas I. Mackie, Sharon Cook, Stephen Crystal, Mark Olfson, Ayse Akincigil

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Objective: Little is known about whether interventions implemented by specialized Medicaid managed care organizations (MMCOs) contributed to recent stabilization of antipsychotic prescribing to youths in foster care. This study examined a multimodal antipsychotic intervention implemented by a specialized MMCO for youths in foster care with routine mental health screening, health passports, elective psychiatric consultation line, and retrospective drug utilization reviews to determine whether this multimodal intervention significantly reduced antipsychotic dispensing for youths with conditions without US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)–approved indications. Method: Employing a difference-in-differences design, intervention effectiveness for youths in foster care (age 6–17 years) compared with adopted youthss was examined. Analyses were stratified by FDA-indicated conditions, other externalizing conditions, and other internalizing conditions. Outcomes included predicted annual probabilities of any antipsychotic dispensed, antipsychotic dispensed for ≥90 consecutive days, and glucose and lipid testing. Results: Intervention-enrolled youths with FDA-indicated conditions, relative to comparison youths, experienced a 0.6% reduction in any antipsychotic dispensed and 3.1% increase for ≥90 consecutive days dispensed in the 2 years following implementation, both nonsignificant differences. Youths with other externalizing disorders experienced significant reductions, relative to comparison youths, in any antipsychotic dispensed (−6.3%, p < .001) and in ≥90 consecutive days dispensed (−5.5%, p < .001). Youths with other internalizing disorders experienced a significant reduction, relative to comparison youths, in any antipsychotic dispensed (−7.6%, p < .001) and in ≥90 consecutive days dispensed (−5.1%, p < .001). Glucose and lipid testing increased at statistically comparable rates for both groups. Conclusion: MMCO implementation significantly reduced antipsychotic medications without FDA-indicated conditions prescribed to youths, while not significantly affecting antipsychotic medications prescribed to youths with FDA-indicated conditions.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)166-176.e3
JournalJournal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
Volume59
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 2020

Fingerprint

Managed Care Programs
Antipsychotic Agents
Organizations
United States Food and Drug Administration
Medicaid
Drug Utilization Review
Lipids
Glucose
Psychiatry
Mental Health
Referral and Consultation

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Psychiatry and Mental health
  • Developmental and Educational Psychology

Keywords

  • Medicaid
  • antipsychotic agent
  • drug utilization review
  • managed care organization

Cite this

@article{20640d8798704012936a1bf002231d74,
title = "Antipsychotic Use Among Youth in Foster Care Enrolled in a Specialized Managed Care Organization Intervention",
abstract = "Objective: Little is known about whether interventions implemented by specialized Medicaid managed care organizations (MMCOs) contributed to recent stabilization of antipsychotic prescribing to youths in foster care. This study examined a multimodal antipsychotic intervention implemented by a specialized MMCO for youths in foster care with routine mental health screening, health passports, elective psychiatric consultation line, and retrospective drug utilization reviews to determine whether this multimodal intervention significantly reduced antipsychotic dispensing for youths with conditions without US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)–approved indications. Method: Employing a difference-in-differences design, intervention effectiveness for youths in foster care (age 6–17 years) compared with adopted youthss was examined. Analyses were stratified by FDA-indicated conditions, other externalizing conditions, and other internalizing conditions. Outcomes included predicted annual probabilities of any antipsychotic dispensed, antipsychotic dispensed for ≥90 consecutive days, and glucose and lipid testing. Results: Intervention-enrolled youths with FDA-indicated conditions, relative to comparison youths, experienced a 0.6{\%} reduction in any antipsychotic dispensed and 3.1{\%} increase for ≥90 consecutive days dispensed in the 2 years following implementation, both nonsignificant differences. Youths with other externalizing disorders experienced significant reductions, relative to comparison youths, in any antipsychotic dispensed (−6.3{\%}, p < .001) and in ≥90 consecutive days dispensed (−5.5{\%}, p < .001). Youths with other internalizing disorders experienced a significant reduction, relative to comparison youths, in any antipsychotic dispensed (−7.6{\%}, p < .001) and in ≥90 consecutive days dispensed (−5.1{\%}, p < .001). Glucose and lipid testing increased at statistically comparable rates for both groups. Conclusion: MMCO implementation significantly reduced antipsychotic medications without FDA-indicated conditions prescribed to youths, while not significantly affecting antipsychotic medications prescribed to youths with FDA-indicated conditions.",
keywords = "Medicaid, antipsychotic agent, drug utilization review, managed care organization",
author = "Mackie, {Thomas I.} and Sharon Cook and Stephen Crystal and Mark Olfson and Ayse Akincigil",
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Antipsychotic Use Among Youth in Foster Care Enrolled in a Specialized Managed Care Organization Intervention. / Mackie, Thomas I.; Cook, Sharon; Crystal, Stephen; Olfson, Mark; Akincigil, Ayse.

In: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Vol. 59, No. 1, 01.2020, p. 166-176.e3.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Antipsychotic Use Among Youth in Foster Care Enrolled in a Specialized Managed Care Organization Intervention

AU - Mackie, Thomas I.

AU - Cook, Sharon

AU - Crystal, Stephen

AU - Olfson, Mark

AU - Akincigil, Ayse

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N2 - Objective: Little is known about whether interventions implemented by specialized Medicaid managed care organizations (MMCOs) contributed to recent stabilization of antipsychotic prescribing to youths in foster care. This study examined a multimodal antipsychotic intervention implemented by a specialized MMCO for youths in foster care with routine mental health screening, health passports, elective psychiatric consultation line, and retrospective drug utilization reviews to determine whether this multimodal intervention significantly reduced antipsychotic dispensing for youths with conditions without US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)–approved indications. Method: Employing a difference-in-differences design, intervention effectiveness for youths in foster care (age 6–17 years) compared with adopted youthss was examined. Analyses were stratified by FDA-indicated conditions, other externalizing conditions, and other internalizing conditions. Outcomes included predicted annual probabilities of any antipsychotic dispensed, antipsychotic dispensed for ≥90 consecutive days, and glucose and lipid testing. Results: Intervention-enrolled youths with FDA-indicated conditions, relative to comparison youths, experienced a 0.6% reduction in any antipsychotic dispensed and 3.1% increase for ≥90 consecutive days dispensed in the 2 years following implementation, both nonsignificant differences. Youths with other externalizing disorders experienced significant reductions, relative to comparison youths, in any antipsychotic dispensed (−6.3%, p < .001) and in ≥90 consecutive days dispensed (−5.5%, p < .001). Youths with other internalizing disorders experienced a significant reduction, relative to comparison youths, in any antipsychotic dispensed (−7.6%, p < .001) and in ≥90 consecutive days dispensed (−5.1%, p < .001). Glucose and lipid testing increased at statistically comparable rates for both groups. Conclusion: MMCO implementation significantly reduced antipsychotic medications without FDA-indicated conditions prescribed to youths, while not significantly affecting antipsychotic medications prescribed to youths with FDA-indicated conditions.

AB - Objective: Little is known about whether interventions implemented by specialized Medicaid managed care organizations (MMCOs) contributed to recent stabilization of antipsychotic prescribing to youths in foster care. This study examined a multimodal antipsychotic intervention implemented by a specialized MMCO for youths in foster care with routine mental health screening, health passports, elective psychiatric consultation line, and retrospective drug utilization reviews to determine whether this multimodal intervention significantly reduced antipsychotic dispensing for youths with conditions without US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)–approved indications. Method: Employing a difference-in-differences design, intervention effectiveness for youths in foster care (age 6–17 years) compared with adopted youthss was examined. Analyses were stratified by FDA-indicated conditions, other externalizing conditions, and other internalizing conditions. Outcomes included predicted annual probabilities of any antipsychotic dispensed, antipsychotic dispensed for ≥90 consecutive days, and glucose and lipid testing. Results: Intervention-enrolled youths with FDA-indicated conditions, relative to comparison youths, experienced a 0.6% reduction in any antipsychotic dispensed and 3.1% increase for ≥90 consecutive days dispensed in the 2 years following implementation, both nonsignificant differences. Youths with other externalizing disorders experienced significant reductions, relative to comparison youths, in any antipsychotic dispensed (−6.3%, p < .001) and in ≥90 consecutive days dispensed (−5.5%, p < .001). Youths with other internalizing disorders experienced a significant reduction, relative to comparison youths, in any antipsychotic dispensed (−7.6%, p < .001) and in ≥90 consecutive days dispensed (−5.1%, p < .001). Glucose and lipid testing increased at statistically comparable rates for both groups. Conclusion: MMCO implementation significantly reduced antipsychotic medications without FDA-indicated conditions prescribed to youths, while not significantly affecting antipsychotic medications prescribed to youths with FDA-indicated conditions.

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