Astronomical Distance Determination in the Space Age: Secondary Distance Indicators

Bożena Czerny, Rachael Beaton, Michał Bejger, Edward Cackett, Massimo Dall’Ora, R. F.L. Holanda, Joseph B. Jensen, Saurabh W. Jha, Elisabeta Lusso, Takeo Minezaki, Guido Risaliti, Maurizio Salaris, Silvia Toonen, Yuzuru Yoshii

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

17 Scopus citations


The formal division of the distance indicators into primary and secondary leads to difficulties in description of methods which can actually be used in two ways: with, and without the support of the other methods for scaling. Thus instead of concentrating on the scaling requirement we concentrate on all methods of distance determination to extragalactic sources which are designated, at least formally, to use for individual sources. Among those, the Supernovae Ia is clearly the leader due to its enormous success in determination of the expansion rate of the Universe. However, new methods are rapidly developing, and there is also a progress in more traditional methods. We give a general overview of the methods but we mostly concentrate on the most recent developments in each field, and future expectations.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number32
JournalSpace Science Reviews
Issue number1
StatePublished - Feb 1 2018

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • Space and Planetary Science


  • Distance scale
  • Galaxies: distances and redshifts
  • Stars: supernovae

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