Behavioral and physiological resistance of the German cockroach to gel baits (Blattodea: Blattellidae)

Changlu Wang, Michael E. Scharf, Gary W. Bennett

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A gel bait-resistant German cockroach, Blattella germanica (L.), strain Cincy was collected in Cincinnati, OH. This strain exhibited a high level of behavioral resistance to Avert (0.05% abamectin) and Maxforce FC (0.01% fipronil) gel baits. Topical application assays indicated moderate levels of physiological resistance of the Cincy strain to abamectin and fipronil. Resistance ratios (based on LD50 values from topical applications) to abamectin and fipronil were 2.5 and 8.7, respectively. The Cincy strain of had a significantly lower LD50 value to abamectin than a nonaverse field strain (Dorie) and similar LD50 values to fipronil as the Done strain. The aversion behavior (avoidance of gel baits) was therefore caused by food ingredients in the gel baits. The Cincy strain showed avoidance of agar containing fructose, glucose, maltose, and sucrose, which are phagostimulants to the laboratory strain. Modifications of the inert ingredients in the Maxforce FC gel bait significantly improved the efficacy against the Cincy strain. The Cincy strain produced significantly smaller oothecae and lower numbers of eggs in each egg capsule than the nonaverse Jwax and Dorie strains of cockroaches, suggesting fitness costs are associated with resistance.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2067-2072
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of economic entomology
Issue number6
StatePublished - Dec 2004
Externally publishedYes

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Insect Science
  • Ecology


  • Abamectin
  • Blattella germanica
  • Fipronil
  • Food aversion
  • Resistance


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