Catalytic activity of aminoacyl tRNA synthetases and its implications for the origin of life. I. Aminoacyl adenylate formation in tyrosyl tRNA synthetase

W. A. Sokalski, M. Shibata, D. Barak, R. Rein

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Scopus citations

Abstract

The changes in the catalytic activity resulting from amino acid substitutions in the active site region have been theoretically modeled for tyrosyl tRNA synthetase (Tyr-RS). The catalytic activity was calculated as the differential stabilization of the transition state using electrostatic approximation. The results indicate that charged residues His45, His48, Asp78, Asp176, Asp194, Lys225, Lys230, Lys233, Arg265, and Lys268 play essential roles in catalysis of aminoacyl adenylate formation in Tyr-RS, which is in general agreement with previously known experimental data for residues 45, 48, 194, 230, and 233. These catalytic residues have also been used to search for sequence homology patterns among class I aminoacyl RSs of which HIGH and KMSKS conserved sequence motifs are well known. His45 and His48 belong to the HIGH signature sequence of class I aminoacyl tRNA synthetases (aRSs), whereas Arg265 and Lys268 can constitute a part of the KMSKS charge pattern. Lys225, Lys230, and Lys233 may be part of the conservative substitution pattern [HKR]-X(4)-[HKR]-X(2)-[HKR], and Asp 194 is part of the new GSDQ motif. This demonstrates that the three dimensional charge distribution near the active site is an essential feature of the catalytic activity of aRS and that the theoretical technique used in this work can be utilized in searches for the catalytically important residues that may provide a clue for a charge residue pattern conserved in evolution. The appearance of patterns I-IV in Arg-, Gln-, Met-, Ile-, Leu-, Trp-, Val-, Glu-, Cys-, and Tyr-RS indicates that all these enzymes could have the same ancestor.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)405-411
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Molecular Evolution
Volume33
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - Nov 1991
Externally publishedYes

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Genetics
  • Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
  • Molecular Biology

Keywords

  • Aminoacyl adenylate formation
  • Aminoacyl tRNA synthetase
  • Catalytic activity
  • Enzyme evolution
  • Quantum chemical study
  • Sequence motif
  • Signature sequences
  • Transition state stabilization

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