Coupling of drug protonation to the specific binding of aminoglycosides to the A site of 16 S rRNA: Elucidation of the number of drug amino groups involved and their identities

Malvika Kaul, Christopher M. Barbieri, John E. Kerrigan, Daniel S. Pilch

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

104 Scopus citations

Abstract

2-Deoxystreptamine (2-DOS) aminoglycoside antibiotics bind specifically to the central region of the 16S rRNA A site and interfere with protein synthesis. Recently, we have shown that the binding of 2-DOS aminoglycosides to an A site model RNA oligonucleotide is linked to the protonation of drug amino groups. Here, we extend these studies to define the number of amino groups involved as well as their identities. Specifically, we use pH-dependent 15N NMR spectroscopy to determine the pKa values of the amino groups in neomycin B, paromomycin I, and lividomycin A sulfate, with the resulting pKa values ranging from 6.92 to 9.51. For each drug, the 3-amino group was associated with the lowest pKa, with this value being 6.92 in neomycin B, 7.07 in paromomycin I, and 7.24 in lividomycin A. In addition, we use buffer-dependent isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) to determine the number of protons linked to the complexation of the three drugs with the A site model RNA oligomer at pH 5.5, 8.8, or 9.0. At pH 5.5, the binding of the three drugs to the host RNA is independent of drug protonation effects. By contrast, at pH 9.0, the RNA binding of paromomycin I and neomycin B is coupled to the uptake of 3.25 and 3.80 protons, respectively, with the RNA binding of lividomycin A at pH 8.8 being coupled to the uptake of 3.25 protons. A comparison of these values with the protonation states of the drugs predicted by our NMR-derived pKa values allows us to identify the specific drug amino groups whose protonation is linked to complexation with the host RNA. These determinations reveal that the binding of lividomycin A to the host RNA is coupled to the protonation of all five of its amino groups, with the RNA binding of paromomycin I and neomycin B being linked to the protonation of four and at least five amino groups, respectively. For paromomycin I, the protonation reactions involve the 1-, 3-, 2′-, and 2‴-amino groups, while, for neomycin B, the binding-linked protonation reactions involve at least the 1-, 3-, 2′, 6′-, and 2‴-amino groups. Our results clearly identify drug protonation reactions as important thermodynamic participants in the specific binding of 2-DOS aminoglycosides to the A site of 16S rRNA.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1373-1387
Number of pages15
JournalJournal of molecular biology
Volume326
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 7 2003

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Molecular Biology
  • Structural Biology

Keywords

  • Aminoglycoside pK values
  • Aminoglycoside-RNA recognition
  • Isothermal titration calorimetry
  • N NMR
  • rRNA binding-linked aminoglycoside protonation

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