Detection of respiratory inflammation biomarkers in non-processed exhaled breath condensate samples using reduced graphene oxide

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


In this work, we studied several important parameters regarding the standardization of a portable sensor of nitrite, a key biomarker of inflammation in the respiratory tract in untreated EBC samples. The storage of the EBC samples and electrical properties of both EBC samples and the sensor as main standardization parameters were investigated. The sensor performance was performed using differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) in a standard nitrite solution and untreated EBC samples. The storage effect was monitored by comparing sensor data of fresh and stored samples for one month at −80 °C. Results show, on average, a 20 percent reduction of peak current for stored solutions. The sensor's performance was compared with a previous EBC nitrite sensor and chemiluminescence method. The results demonstrate a good correlation between the present sensor and chemiluminescence for low nitrite concentrations in untreated EBC samples. The electrical behavior of the sensor and electrical variation between EBC samples were characterized using methods such as noise analysis, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), electrical impedance (EI), and voltage shift. Data show that reduced graphene oxide (rGO) has lower electrical noise and a higher electron transfer rate regarding nitrite detection. Also, a voltage shift can be applied to calibrate the data based on the electrical variation between different EBC samples. This result makes it easy to calibrate the electrical difference between EBC samples and have a more reproducible portable chip design without using bulky EI instruments. This work helps detect nitrite in untreated and pure EBC samples and evaluates critical analytical EBC properties essential for developing portable and on-site point-of-care sensors.

Original languageAmerican English
Pages (from-to)35627-35638
Number of pages12
JournalRSC Advances
Issue number55
StatePublished - Dec 13 2022

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Chemistry(all)
  • Chemical Engineering(all)


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