Development and Initial Validation of the Perceptual Assessment of Memory (PASSOM): A Simulator Study

Justin C. Koenitzer, Janice E. Herron, Jesse W. Whitlow, Catherine M. Barbuscak, Nitin R. Patel, Ryan Pletcher, Jerilyn Christensen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Objective: Performance validity tests (PVTs) are an integral component of neuropsychological assessment. There is a need for the development of more PVTs, especially those employing covert determinations. The aim of the present study was to provide initial validation of a new computerized PVT, the Perceptual Assessment of Memory (PASSOM). Method: Participants were 58 undergraduate students randomly assigned to a simulator (SIM) or control (CON) group. All participants were provided written instructions for their role prior to testing and were administered the PASSOM as part of a brief battery of neurocognitive tests. Indices of interest included response accuracy for Trials 1 and 2, and total errors across Trials, as well as response time (RT) for Trials 1 and 2, and total RT for both Trials. Results: The SIM group produced significantly more errors than the CON group for Trials 1 and 2, and committed more total errors across trials. Significantly longer response latencies were found for the SIM group compared to the CON group for all RT indices examined. Linear regression modeling indicated excellent group classification for all indices studied, with areas under the curve ranging from 0.92 to 0.95. Sensitivity and specificity rates were good for several cut scores across all of the accuracy and RT indices, and sensitivity improved greatly by combining RT cut scores with the more traditional accuracy cut scores. Conclusion: Findings demonstrate the ability of the PASSOM to distinguish individuals instructed to feign cognitive impairment from those told to perform to the best of their ability.

Original languageAmerican English
Pages (from-to)1326-1340
Number of pages15
JournalArchives of Clinical Neuropsychology
Issue number7
StatePublished - Oct 1 2021

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neuropsychology and Physiological Psychology
  • Clinical Psychology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health


  • Forensic neuropsychology
  • Malingering/symptom validity testing
  • Test construction


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