Disparate Cardiovascular Hospitalization Trends Among Young and Middle-Aged Adults Within and Across Race and Ethnicity Groups in Four States in the United States

Ehimare Akhabue, Melanie Rua, Poonam Gandhi, Jung Hyun Kim, Joel C. Cantor, Soko Setoguchi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


BACKGROUND: Inpatient hospitalizations for cardiovascular disease (CVD) decreased nationally in the past decade. However, data are lacking on whether national declines represent trends within and across race and ethnicity populations from different US regions. METHODS AND RESULTS: Using State Inpatient Databases, Census Bureau and Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data for Florida, Kentucky, New Jersey, and North Carolina, we identified all CVD hospitalizations and population characteristics for adults aged 18 to 64 years between January 1, 2009 and December 31, 2018. We calculated yearly CVD hospitalization rates for each state for the overall population, by sex, race, and ethnicity. We modeled yearly trends in age-adjusted CVD hospitalization rate in each state using negative binomial regression. State base populations were similar by age (mean age: 40– 42 years) and sex (50%– 51% female) throughout the study period. There were 314 973 and 288 843 total CVD hospitalizations among the 4 states in 2009 and 2018, respectively. Crude hospitalization rates declined in all states (age 18– 44 years NJ: −33.4%; KY: −17.0%; FL: −11.9%; NC: −11.2%; age 45– 64 years NJ: −29.8%; KY: −20.3%; FL: −12.2%; NC: −11.6%) over the study period. In age-adjusted models, overall hospitalization rates declined significantly in NJ −2.5%/y (95% CI, −2.9 to −2.1) and in KY −1.6%/y (−1.9 to −1.2) with no significant declining trend in FL and NC. Similar findings were present by sex. Among non-Hispanic White populations, mean yearly decline in hospitalization rate was significant in all states except FL, with the greatest declines in NJ (−3.8%/y [−4.4 to −3.2], P values for state−year interaction <0.0001). By contrast, a significant declining trend was present for non-Hispanic Black and Hispanic populations only in NJ (P values for state−year interaction <0.001). We found similar differences in trend between states in sensitivity analyses incorporating additional demographic and comorbid characteristics. CONCLUSIONS: Decreases in CVD hospitalization rates in the past decade among nonelderly adults varied considerably by state and appeared largely driven by declines among non-Hispanic White populations. Overall declines did not represent divergent trends between states within non-Hispanic Black and Hispanic populations. Recognition of differences not just between but also within race and ethnicity populations should inform national and local policy initiatives aimed at reducing disparities in CVD outcomes.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numbere7978
JournalJournal of the American Heart Association
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 3 2023

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


  • behavioral risk factor surveillance system
  • cardiovascular epidemiology
  • cardiovascular hospitalization
  • health disparities
  • health policy
  • middle-aged adult
  • young adult


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