Divergent roles for estrogens and androgens in the expression of female goat sexual behavior

D. Bradley Imwalle, Larry S. Katz

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

13 Scopus citations


We tested the hypothesis that the activation of the androgen receptor (AR) is required for full expression of female goat sexual behavior. Once a week for 6 weeks, ovariectomized (OVX) females were given priming doses of progesterone 72 and 48 h before behavioral observation. Estradiol (E2; 100 μg), testosterone (T; 100 mg), or sesame oil was supplied 14 h before behavioral testing. Six goats received the AR antagonist flutamide (9 mg/kg sc) 8 h before and 4 h after steroid injection. Six goats received the carrier only. After 3 weeks, flutamide and carrier treatments were switched so that all females received all treatments. Treatments with E2 and T were equally effective in eliciting estrus-typical behaviors (sniffing, courting, leg kicks, mount attempts by males, bouts of thrusting by males, ejaculations, and flehman responses) compared to treatment with oil. Flutamide treatment enhanced proceptive behaviors in E2-treated females compared to other treatment groups; this was most likely via enhanced tail wagging. Moreover, compared to goats given T + carrier, T + flutamide significantly reduced receptivity in females. The results of this experiment implicate the AR as an important facilitator of some aspects of the female goat sexual behavior. However, the results of this experiment do not show whether androgens influence estrous behaviors alone or in some combination with estrogen.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)54-58
Number of pages5
JournalHormones and Behavior
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jun 2004

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Endocrine and Autonomic Systems
  • Endocrinology
  • Behavioral Neuroscience


  • Flutamide
  • Libido
  • Proceptivity
  • Receptivity
  • Tail wagging


Dive into the research topics of 'Divergent roles for estrogens and androgens in the expression of female goat sexual behavior'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this