This chapter reviews some of the cellular and pathologic models that support a multistep oncogenic process from a single ovarian epithelial cell that that provides a rationale for screening. The chapter discusses risk factors and current screening guidelines. Making a diagnosis of early stage ovarian cancer is an extremely difficult task. However, survival is better in early-stage ovarian cancer leading to attempts being made for early detection through tumor markers and screening strategies. CA125 is one of the widely used tumor markers, that has proved beneficial in the detection of ovarian cancer. Other methods used for cancer screening include: ultrasonography and morphology scoring indices. Early symptoms of ovarian cancer are varied and include: abdominal discomfort, dyspepsia, flatulence, bloating, mild digestive disturbances, and pelvic pain. The time required to develop an invasive cancer is unknown. Early detection is significant for improved treatment outcome, as measured by a reduction in morbidity and mortality, in a group of individuals at risk for developing this disease. It is important for all the women to undergo annual pelvic examination as part of routine medical care. The long-term goal of screening approaches is to prevent the onset of the disease by risk-reduction interventions, including chemoprevention and prophylactic surgery.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- General Medicine
- General Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology