Early Events Triggering the Initiation of a Type 2 Immune Response

Darine W. El-Naccache, György Haskó, William C. Gause

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Type 2 immune responses are typically associated with protection against helminth infections and also with harmful inflammation in response to allergens. Recent advances have revealed that type 2 immunity also contributes to sterile inflammation, cancer, and microbial infections. However, the early events that initiate type 2 immune responses remain poorly defined. New insights reveal major contributions from danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) in the initiation of type 2 immune responses. In this review, we examine the molecules released by the host and pathogens and the role they play in mediating the initiation of mammalian innate type 2 immune responses under a variety of conditions.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)151-164
Number of pages14
JournalTrends in Immunology
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 2021

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Immunology


  • DAMPs
  • allergens
  • cancer
  • helminths
  • sterile inflammation


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