Effect of a hypocaloric, nutritionally complete, higher-protein meal plan on bone density and quality in older adults with obesity

A randomized trial

Ashley A. Weaver, Denise K. Houston, Sue Shapses, Mary F. Lyles, Rebecca M. Henderson, Daniel P. Beavers, Arlynn C. Baker, Kristen M. Beavers

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Background Dietary protein and micronutrients are important to the maintenance of bone health and may be an effective countermeasure to weight-loss-Associated bone loss. Objectives We aimed to determine the effect of a 6-mo hypocaloric, nutritionally complete, higher-protein meal plan on change in bone density and quality as compared with weight stability in older adults using a randomized post-Test design. We hypothesized that participants randomly assigned to this meal plan would maintain similar bone density and quality to weight-stable controls, despite significant reductions in body mass. Methods Ninety-six older adults (aged 70.3 ± 3.7 y, 74% women, 27% African American) with obesity [body mass index (kg/m 2): 35.4 ± 3.3] were randomly assigned to a 6-mo hypocaloric, nutritionally complete, higher-protein meal plan targeting ≥1.0 g protein · kg body weight-1 · d-1 [weight-loss (WL) group; n = 47] or to a weight-stability (WS) group targeting 0.8 g protein · kg body weight-1 · d-1, the current Recommended Dietary Allowance (n = 49). The primary outcome was total hip bone mineral density (BMD), with femoral neck BMD, lumbar spine BMD, and lumbar spine trabecular bone score (TBS) as secondary outcomes, all assessed at baseline and 3 and 6 mo with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Results Baseline total hip, femoral neck, and lumbar spine BMDs were 1.016 ± 0.160, 0.941 ± 0.142, and 1.287 ± 0.246 g/cm 2, respectively; lumbar TBS was 1.398 ± 0.109. Despite significant weight loss achieved in the WL group (6.6 ± 0.4 kg; 8.6% ± 0.4% of baseline weight), 6-mo regional BMD estimates were similar to those in the WS group (all P > 0.05). Lumbar spine TBS significantly increased at 6 mo in the WL group (mean: 1.421; 95% CI: 1.401, 1.441) compared with the WS group (1.390: 95% CI: 1.370, 1.409; P = 0.02). Conclusions Older adults following a hypocaloric, nutritionally complete, higher-protein meal plan maintained similar bone density and quality to weight-stable controls. Our data suggest that adherence to this diet does not produce loss of hip and spine bone density in older adults and may improve bone quality. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02730988.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)478-486
Number of pages9
JournalAmerican Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Volume109
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Feb 1 2019

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Bone Density
Meals
Obesity
Weights and Measures
Weight Loss
Spine
Proteins
Pelvic Bones
Femur Neck
Bone and Bones
Body Weight
Recommended Dietary Allowances
Dietary Proteins
Micronutrients
Photon Absorptiometry
African Americans
Hip
Body Mass Index
Maintenance
Diet

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Nutrition and Dietetics
  • Medicine (miscellaneous)

Keywords

  • bone mineral density
  • obesity
  • older adults
  • protein
  • trabecular bone score
  • weight loss
  • weight stability

Cite this

Weaver, Ashley A. ; Houston, Denise K. ; Shapses, Sue ; Lyles, Mary F. ; Henderson, Rebecca M. ; Beavers, Daniel P. ; Baker, Arlynn C. ; Beavers, Kristen M. / Effect of a hypocaloric, nutritionally complete, higher-protein meal plan on bone density and quality in older adults with obesity : A randomized trial. In: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2019 ; Vol. 109, No. 2. pp. 478-486.
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abstract = "Background Dietary protein and micronutrients are important to the maintenance of bone health and may be an effective countermeasure to weight-loss-Associated bone loss. Objectives We aimed to determine the effect of a 6-mo hypocaloric, nutritionally complete, higher-protein meal plan on change in bone density and quality as compared with weight stability in older adults using a randomized post-Test design. We hypothesized that participants randomly assigned to this meal plan would maintain similar bone density and quality to weight-stable controls, despite significant reductions in body mass. Methods Ninety-six older adults (aged 70.3 ± 3.7 y, 74{\%} women, 27{\%} African American) with obesity [body mass index (kg/m 2): 35.4 ± 3.3] were randomly assigned to a 6-mo hypocaloric, nutritionally complete, higher-protein meal plan targeting ≥1.0 g protein · kg body weight-1 · d-1 [weight-loss (WL) group; n = 47] or to a weight-stability (WS) group targeting 0.8 g protein · kg body weight-1 · d-1, the current Recommended Dietary Allowance (n = 49). The primary outcome was total hip bone mineral density (BMD), with femoral neck BMD, lumbar spine BMD, and lumbar spine trabecular bone score (TBS) as secondary outcomes, all assessed at baseline and 3 and 6 mo with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Results Baseline total hip, femoral neck, and lumbar spine BMDs were 1.016 ± 0.160, 0.941 ± 0.142, and 1.287 ± 0.246 g/cm 2, respectively; lumbar TBS was 1.398 ± 0.109. Despite significant weight loss achieved in the WL group (6.6 ± 0.4 kg; 8.6{\%} ± 0.4{\%} of baseline weight), 6-mo regional BMD estimates were similar to those in the WS group (all P > 0.05). Lumbar spine TBS significantly increased at 6 mo in the WL group (mean: 1.421; 95{\%} CI: 1.401, 1.441) compared with the WS group (1.390: 95{\%} CI: 1.370, 1.409; P = 0.02). Conclusions Older adults following a hypocaloric, nutritionally complete, higher-protein meal plan maintained similar bone density and quality to weight-stable controls. Our data suggest that adherence to this diet does not produce loss of hip and spine bone density in older adults and may improve bone quality. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02730988.",
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Effect of a hypocaloric, nutritionally complete, higher-protein meal plan on bone density and quality in older adults with obesity : A randomized trial. / Weaver, Ashley A.; Houston, Denise K.; Shapses, Sue; Lyles, Mary F.; Henderson, Rebecca M.; Beavers, Daniel P.; Baker, Arlynn C.; Beavers, Kristen M.

In: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 109, No. 2, 01.02.2019, p. 478-486.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Effect of a hypocaloric, nutritionally complete, higher-protein meal plan on bone density and quality in older adults with obesity

T2 - A randomized trial

AU - Weaver, Ashley A.

AU - Houston, Denise K.

AU - Shapses, Sue

AU - Lyles, Mary F.

AU - Henderson, Rebecca M.

AU - Beavers, Daniel P.

AU - Baker, Arlynn C.

AU - Beavers, Kristen M.

PY - 2019/2/1

Y1 - 2019/2/1

N2 - Background Dietary protein and micronutrients are important to the maintenance of bone health and may be an effective countermeasure to weight-loss-Associated bone loss. Objectives We aimed to determine the effect of a 6-mo hypocaloric, nutritionally complete, higher-protein meal plan on change in bone density and quality as compared with weight stability in older adults using a randomized post-Test design. We hypothesized that participants randomly assigned to this meal plan would maintain similar bone density and quality to weight-stable controls, despite significant reductions in body mass. Methods Ninety-six older adults (aged 70.3 ± 3.7 y, 74% women, 27% African American) with obesity [body mass index (kg/m 2): 35.4 ± 3.3] were randomly assigned to a 6-mo hypocaloric, nutritionally complete, higher-protein meal plan targeting ≥1.0 g protein · kg body weight-1 · d-1 [weight-loss (WL) group; n = 47] or to a weight-stability (WS) group targeting 0.8 g protein · kg body weight-1 · d-1, the current Recommended Dietary Allowance (n = 49). The primary outcome was total hip bone mineral density (BMD), with femoral neck BMD, lumbar spine BMD, and lumbar spine trabecular bone score (TBS) as secondary outcomes, all assessed at baseline and 3 and 6 mo with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Results Baseline total hip, femoral neck, and lumbar spine BMDs were 1.016 ± 0.160, 0.941 ± 0.142, and 1.287 ± 0.246 g/cm 2, respectively; lumbar TBS was 1.398 ± 0.109. Despite significant weight loss achieved in the WL group (6.6 ± 0.4 kg; 8.6% ± 0.4% of baseline weight), 6-mo regional BMD estimates were similar to those in the WS group (all P > 0.05). Lumbar spine TBS significantly increased at 6 mo in the WL group (mean: 1.421; 95% CI: 1.401, 1.441) compared with the WS group (1.390: 95% CI: 1.370, 1.409; P = 0.02). Conclusions Older adults following a hypocaloric, nutritionally complete, higher-protein meal plan maintained similar bone density and quality to weight-stable controls. Our data suggest that adherence to this diet does not produce loss of hip and spine bone density in older adults and may improve bone quality. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02730988.

AB - Background Dietary protein and micronutrients are important to the maintenance of bone health and may be an effective countermeasure to weight-loss-Associated bone loss. Objectives We aimed to determine the effect of a 6-mo hypocaloric, nutritionally complete, higher-protein meal plan on change in bone density and quality as compared with weight stability in older adults using a randomized post-Test design. We hypothesized that participants randomly assigned to this meal plan would maintain similar bone density and quality to weight-stable controls, despite significant reductions in body mass. Methods Ninety-six older adults (aged 70.3 ± 3.7 y, 74% women, 27% African American) with obesity [body mass index (kg/m 2): 35.4 ± 3.3] were randomly assigned to a 6-mo hypocaloric, nutritionally complete, higher-protein meal plan targeting ≥1.0 g protein · kg body weight-1 · d-1 [weight-loss (WL) group; n = 47] or to a weight-stability (WS) group targeting 0.8 g protein · kg body weight-1 · d-1, the current Recommended Dietary Allowance (n = 49). The primary outcome was total hip bone mineral density (BMD), with femoral neck BMD, lumbar spine BMD, and lumbar spine trabecular bone score (TBS) as secondary outcomes, all assessed at baseline and 3 and 6 mo with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Results Baseline total hip, femoral neck, and lumbar spine BMDs were 1.016 ± 0.160, 0.941 ± 0.142, and 1.287 ± 0.246 g/cm 2, respectively; lumbar TBS was 1.398 ± 0.109. Despite significant weight loss achieved in the WL group (6.6 ± 0.4 kg; 8.6% ± 0.4% of baseline weight), 6-mo regional BMD estimates were similar to those in the WS group (all P > 0.05). Lumbar spine TBS significantly increased at 6 mo in the WL group (mean: 1.421; 95% CI: 1.401, 1.441) compared with the WS group (1.390: 95% CI: 1.370, 1.409; P = 0.02). Conclusions Older adults following a hypocaloric, nutritionally complete, higher-protein meal plan maintained similar bone density and quality to weight-stable controls. Our data suggest that adherence to this diet does not produce loss of hip and spine bone density in older adults and may improve bone quality. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02730988.

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KW - obesity

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KW - trabecular bone score

KW - weight loss

KW - weight stability

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