Effect of food and gastric acidity on absorption of orally administered ketoconazole

P. Lelawongs, J. A. Barone, J. L. Colaizzi, A. T.M. Hsuan, W. Mechlinski, R. Legendre, J. Guarnieri

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80 Scopus citations


Effects of food and gastric acidity on the bioavailability of ketoconazole tablets were investigated in 12 volunteers using a six-treatment, randomized, Latin-square crossover design. All volunteers received all treatments, as follows: (A) ketoconazole 200 mg administered after a fast; (B) ketoconazole 200 mg with a standardized high-fat meal; (C) ketoconazole 200 mg with a standardized high-carbohydrate meal; (D) ketoconazole 200 mg after pretreatment with glutamic acid hydrochloride 680 mg as capsules; (E) ketoconazole 200 mg in a simulated achlorhydric state induced with cimetidine and sodium bicarbonate; and (F) ketoconazole 200 mg administered with glutamic acid hydrochloride in a simulated achlorhydric state. Ketoconazole concentrations were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography in plasma samples drawn immediately before and at various times over 24 hours after drug administration. Bioavailability variables, including natural logarithm transformation for area under the concentration-time curve (AUC), were subjected to analysis of variance followed by Duncan's Multiple Range testing. Treatments B and C significantly prolonged the times required to achieve the peak plasma ketoconazole concentration, and treatment C also significantly reduced the peak plasma ketoconazole concentration (C(max)) compared with treatment A. There was a trend toward increased AUC values with treatment B and decreased AUC values with treatment C. Treatment D produced a higher C(max) compared with treatment A, and treatment E produced large, significant reductions in C(max) and AUC values compared with treatment A. Treatment F significantly increased AUC values and C(max) compared with treatment E. Food appears to diminish the rate of ketoconazole absorption, and the effect on extent of absorption may be related to food composition. Glutamic acid hydrochloride capsules may provide an effective, convenient method of enhancing ketoconazole absorption in patients with reduced gastric acidity.

Original languageAmerican English
Pages (from-to)228-235
Number of pages8
JournalClinical Pharmacy
Issue number3
StatePublished - 1988

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmaceutical Science

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