Energy-Efficient Deployment and Adaptive Sleeping in Heterogeneous Cellular Networks

Yun Li, He Zhang, Junwei Wang, Bin Cao, Qilie Liu, Mahmoud Daneshmand

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


This paper focuses on energy efficiency that is a key performance metric in heterogeneous cellular networks to two key areas. First, based on the Poisson point process distributions of small-cell base stations (SBSs) and macrocell base stations (MBSs), the energy-efficiency model is formulated, and the effect of base stations' distribution on energy efficiency is analyzed. For maximizing energy efficiency, the joint optimal densities of SBSs and MBSs are deduced under the constraint of quality of service. Second, according to this, we propose a joint sleep strategy of MBSs and that of SBSs. We deduce the optimal threshold of traffic load according to the joint optimal densities. If the traffic load of SBSs (or MBSs) is less than the optimal threshold of traffic load, these SBSs (or MBSs) go to sleep; otherwise, it is activated. This makes the SBSs and MBSs adaptively and distributively sleep according to their own traffic loads. The simulation results verify that the deduced joint optimal densities of the SBS and the MBS are accurate, and energy efficiency is improved when SBSs and MBSs adaptively sleep.

Original languageEnglish
Article number8672864
Pages (from-to)35838-35850
Number of pages13
JournalIEEE Access
StatePublished - 2019

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Engineering
  • General Computer Science
  • General Materials Science


  • Heterogeneous cellular network
  • adaptive sleeping
  • energy efficiency
  • optimal distribution density

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