Exercise is a cornerstone therapy for chronic diseases related to multiorgan insulin resistance. However, not all individuals show the anticipated improvement in insulin sensitivity following exercise and these individuals are considered exercise resistant. Caloric restriction is an approach to enhance the effect of exercise on increasing peripheral and hepatic insulin sensitivity, as replenishing expended calories blunts these benefits. Alternatively, restricting carbohydrate intake, independent of energy balance, following exercise provides an additive effect on peripheral insulin sensitivity when compared to refeeding carbohydrate. Although carbohydrate composition modulates insulin sensitivity, few have studied effects of low glycemic index or whole-grain diets following exercise across prediabetes phenotypes on insulin sensitivity. Herein, we propose the novel hypothesis that the combination of individualized nutrition therapy and exercise should be based on the clinical pathology of prediabetes to overcome exercise resistance and improve responsiveness in people at risk for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism