Fabrication and evaluation of a single-element Bi 0.5Na 0.5TiO 3-based ultrasonic transducer

M. Mehdi Hejazi, Bahram Jadidian, Ahmad Safari

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

9 Scopus citations


This paper discusses the fabrication and characterization of a single-element ultrasonic transducer with a lead-free piezoelectric active element. A piezoelectric ceramic with composition of 0.88Bi 0.5Na 0.5TiO 3-0.08Bi 0.5K 0.5TiO 3- 0.04Bi 0.5Li 0.5TiO 3 was chosen as the active element of the transducer. This composition exhibited a thickness coupling coefficient (k t) of 0.45, a dielectric constant of 440 (at 1 kHz), and a longitudinal piezoelectric coefficient (d 33) of 84 pC·N -1. To make the transducer, the ceramic was sandwiched between an epoxy-tungsten backing layer and a silver epoxy matching layer. An epoxy lens was also incorporated into the transducer's design to focus the ultrasound beam. The focused transducer with a center frequency of about 23 MHz demonstrated a -6-dB bandwidth of 55% and an insertion loss of -32 dB; the -20-dB pulsed length was measured to be 150 ns. A phantom made of copper wires (30 μm in diameter) was utilized to investigate the imaging capability of the transducer. The results indicated that the fabricated transducer, with a lateral resolution of 260 μm and a relatively high depolarization temperature, could be considered as a candidate for replacement of lead-based ultrasonic transducers.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number6264148
Pages (from-to)1840-1847
Number of pages8
JournalIEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control
Issue number8
StatePublished - 2012

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Instrumentation
  • Acoustics and Ultrasonics
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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