Family income and parenting: The role of parental depression and social support

Chih Yuan S. Lee, Jared R. Anderson, Jason L. Horowitz, Gerald J. August

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

59 Scopus citations


This study examined the relations among family income, social support, parental depression, and parenting among 290 predominantly rural families with children at risk for disruptive or socially withdrawn behaviors. Structural equation modeling and multiple regression were used, and the results showed that low family income was related to high levels of parental depression, which in turn were associated with disruptive parenting. The findings also showed that social support mediated the adverse relationship between low family income and parental depression. Social support was directly related to positive parenting and indirectly related to parent-child relational frustration via parental depression. Social support also moderated the indirect relationship between low family income and parenting. Implications for prevention intervention are discussed.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)417-430
Number of pages14
JournalFamily relations
Issue number4
StatePublished - Oct 1 2009

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Education
  • Developmental and Educational Psychology
  • Social Sciences (miscellaneous)


  • Family income
  • Mediation
  • Moderated mediation
  • Parental depression
  • Parenting
  • Social support


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