Long-chain (n-3) PUFA (LC-PUFA) have been hypothesized to be beneficial in preventing pancreatic carcinogenesis, but the associations of fish or LC-PUFA intake with pancreatic cancer found in epidemiologic studies have been controversial and inconclusive. To estimate the overall association of LC-PUFA or fish intake with pancreatic cancer, we performed a systematic literature search of English-language articles using PubMed and EMBASE through February 2012 and reviewed the reference lists from retrieved articles. Prospective cohort or case-control studies that reported ratioestimates and corresponding 95% CI for the associations of fish or LC-PUFA intake and pancreatic cancer were selected. Independent data extraction was performed by 2 of the authors. The pooled associations were obtained by using a random-effects model. A database was derived from 9 independent cohorts that included 1,209,265 participants (3082 events) with a mean follow-up of 9 y and 10 independent case-control studies that included 2514 cases and 18,779 controls. Compared with those having the lowest fish consumption, the pooled RR of pancreatic cancer was 0.98 (95% CI: 0.86, 1.12) for those who had the highest fish intake from 8 cohort studies and was 0.96 (95% CI: 0.76, 1.21) from 9 casecontrol studies. We found similar results for LC-PUFA intake by combining data from 4 cohorts or 2 case-control studies. Our results do not support an overall inverse association of fish or LC-PUFA intake with risk of pancreatic cancer. Further studies that consider different species and preparation methods of fish, and additional adjustment for contaminants in fish, are warranted.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Nutrition and Dietetics
- Medicine (miscellaneous)