Global prevalence and major risk factors of diabetic retinopathy

Joanne W.Y. Yau, Sophie L. Rogers, Rho Kawasaki, Ecosse L. Lamoureux, Jonathan W. Kowalski, Toke Bek, Shih Jen Chen, Jacqueline M. Dekker, Astrid Fletcher, Jakob Grauslund, Steven Haffner, Richard F. Hamman, M. Kamran Ikram, Takamasa Kayama, Barbara E.K. Klein, Ronald Klein, Sannapaneni Krishnaiah, Korapat Mayurasakorn, Joseph P. O'Hare, Trevor J. Orchard & 16 others Massimo Porta, Mohan Rema, Monique Roy, Tarun Sharma, Jonathan Shaw, Hugh Taylor, James M. Tielsch, Rohit Varma, Jie Jin Wang, Ningli Wang, Sheila West, Liang Zu, Miho Yasuda, Xinzhi Zhang, Paul Mitchell, Tien Y. Wong

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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Abstract

OBJECTIVE - To examine the global prevalence and major risk factors for diabetic retinopathy (DR) and vision-threatening diabetic retinopathy (VTDR) among people with diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS - A pooled analysis using individual participant data from population-based studies around the world was performed. A systematic literature review was conducted to identify all population-based studies in general populations or individuals with diabetes who had ascertained DR from retinal photographs. Studies provided data for DR end points, including any DR, proliferative DR, diabetic macular edema, and VTDR, and also major systemic risk factors. Pooled prevalence estimates were directly age-standardized to the 2010 World Diabetes Population aged 20-79 years. RESULTS - A total of 35 studies (1980-2008) provided data from 22,896 individuals with diabetes. The overall prevalence was 34.6% (95% CI 34.5-34.8) for any DR, 6.96% (6.87-7.04) for proliferative DR, 6.81% (6.74-6.89) for diabetic macular edema, and 10.2% (10.1-10.3) for VTDR. All DR prevalence end points increased with diabetes duration, hemoglobin A1c, and blood pressure levels and were higher in people with type 1 compared with type 2 diabetes. CONCLUSIONS - There are approximately 93 million people with DR, 17 million with proliferative DR, 21million with diabeticmacular edema, and 28million with VTDR worldwide. Longer diabetes duration and poorer glycemic and blood pressure control are strongly associated with DR. These data highlight the substantial worldwide public health burden of DR and the importance of modifiable risk factors in its occurrence. This study is limited by data pooled from studies at different time points, with different methodologies and population characteristics.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)556-564
Number of pages9
JournalDiabetes care
Volume35
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 1 2012

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Diabetic Retinopathy
Macular Edema
Population
Blood Pressure
Population Characteristics
Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Advanced and Specialized Nursing
  • Internal Medicine
  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism

Cite this

Yau, J. W. Y., Rogers, S. L., Kawasaki, R., Lamoureux, E. L., Kowalski, J. W., Bek, T., ... Wong, T. Y. (2012). Global prevalence and major risk factors of diabetic retinopathy. Diabetes care, 35(3), 556-564. https://doi.org/10.2337/dc11-1909
Yau, Joanne W.Y. ; Rogers, Sophie L. ; Kawasaki, Rho ; Lamoureux, Ecosse L. ; Kowalski, Jonathan W. ; Bek, Toke ; Chen, Shih Jen ; Dekker, Jacqueline M. ; Fletcher, Astrid ; Grauslund, Jakob ; Haffner, Steven ; Hamman, Richard F. ; Ikram, M. Kamran ; Kayama, Takamasa ; Klein, Barbara E.K. ; Klein, Ronald ; Krishnaiah, Sannapaneni ; Mayurasakorn, Korapat ; O'Hare, Joseph P. ; Orchard, Trevor J. ; Porta, Massimo ; Rema, Mohan ; Roy, Monique ; Sharma, Tarun ; Shaw, Jonathan ; Taylor, Hugh ; Tielsch, James M. ; Varma, Rohit ; Wang, Jie Jin ; Wang, Ningli ; West, Sheila ; Zu, Liang ; Yasuda, Miho ; Zhang, Xinzhi ; Mitchell, Paul ; Wong, Tien Y. / Global prevalence and major risk factors of diabetic retinopathy. In: Diabetes care. 2012 ; Vol. 35, No. 3. pp. 556-564.
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abstract = "OBJECTIVE - To examine the global prevalence and major risk factors for diabetic retinopathy (DR) and vision-threatening diabetic retinopathy (VTDR) among people with diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS - A pooled analysis using individual participant data from population-based studies around the world was performed. A systematic literature review was conducted to identify all population-based studies in general populations or individuals with diabetes who had ascertained DR from retinal photographs. Studies provided data for DR end points, including any DR, proliferative DR, diabetic macular edema, and VTDR, and also major systemic risk factors. Pooled prevalence estimates were directly age-standardized to the 2010 World Diabetes Population aged 20-79 years. RESULTS - A total of 35 studies (1980-2008) provided data from 22,896 individuals with diabetes. The overall prevalence was 34.6{\%} (95{\%} CI 34.5-34.8) for any DR, 6.96{\%} (6.87-7.04) for proliferative DR, 6.81{\%} (6.74-6.89) for diabetic macular edema, and 10.2{\%} (10.1-10.3) for VTDR. All DR prevalence end points increased with diabetes duration, hemoglobin A1c, and blood pressure levels and were higher in people with type 1 compared with type 2 diabetes. CONCLUSIONS - There are approximately 93 million people with DR, 17 million with proliferative DR, 21million with diabeticmacular edema, and 28million with VTDR worldwide. Longer diabetes duration and poorer glycemic and blood pressure control are strongly associated with DR. These data highlight the substantial worldwide public health burden of DR and the importance of modifiable risk factors in its occurrence. This study is limited by data pooled from studies at different time points, with different methodologies and population characteristics.",
author = "Yau, {Joanne W.Y.} and Rogers, {Sophie L.} and Rho Kawasaki and Lamoureux, {Ecosse L.} and Kowalski, {Jonathan W.} and Toke Bek and Chen, {Shih Jen} and Dekker, {Jacqueline M.} and Astrid Fletcher and Jakob Grauslund and Steven Haffner and Hamman, {Richard F.} and Ikram, {M. Kamran} and Takamasa Kayama and Klein, {Barbara E.K.} and Ronald Klein and Sannapaneni Krishnaiah and Korapat Mayurasakorn and O'Hare, {Joseph P.} and Orchard, {Trevor J.} and Massimo Porta and Mohan Rema and Monique Roy and Tarun Sharma and Jonathan Shaw and Hugh Taylor and Tielsch, {James M.} and Rohit Varma and Wang, {Jie Jin} and Ningli Wang and Sheila West and Liang Zu and Miho Yasuda and Xinzhi Zhang and Paul Mitchell and Wong, {Tien Y.}",
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Yau, JWY, Rogers, SL, Kawasaki, R, Lamoureux, EL, Kowalski, JW, Bek, T, Chen, SJ, Dekker, JM, Fletcher, A, Grauslund, J, Haffner, S, Hamman, RF, Ikram, MK, Kayama, T, Klein, BEK, Klein, R, Krishnaiah, S, Mayurasakorn, K, O'Hare, JP, Orchard, TJ, Porta, M, Rema, M, Roy, M, Sharma, T, Shaw, J, Taylor, H, Tielsch, JM, Varma, R, Wang, JJ, Wang, N, West, S, Zu, L, Yasuda, M, Zhang, X, Mitchell, P & Wong, TY 2012, 'Global prevalence and major risk factors of diabetic retinopathy', Diabetes care, vol. 35, no. 3, pp. 556-564. https://doi.org/10.2337/dc11-1909

Global prevalence and major risk factors of diabetic retinopathy. / Yau, Joanne W.Y.; Rogers, Sophie L.; Kawasaki, Rho; Lamoureux, Ecosse L.; Kowalski, Jonathan W.; Bek, Toke; Chen, Shih Jen; Dekker, Jacqueline M.; Fletcher, Astrid; Grauslund, Jakob; Haffner, Steven; Hamman, Richard F.; Ikram, M. Kamran; Kayama, Takamasa; Klein, Barbara E.K.; Klein, Ronald; Krishnaiah, Sannapaneni; Mayurasakorn, Korapat; O'Hare, Joseph P.; Orchard, Trevor J.; Porta, Massimo; Rema, Mohan; Roy, Monique; Sharma, Tarun; Shaw, Jonathan; Taylor, Hugh; Tielsch, James M.; Varma, Rohit; Wang, Jie Jin; Wang, Ningli; West, Sheila; Zu, Liang; Yasuda, Miho; Zhang, Xinzhi; Mitchell, Paul; Wong, Tien Y.

In: Diabetes care, Vol. 35, No. 3, 01.03.2012, p. 556-564.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Global prevalence and major risk factors of diabetic retinopathy

AU - Yau, Joanne W.Y.

AU - Rogers, Sophie L.

AU - Kawasaki, Rho

AU - Lamoureux, Ecosse L.

AU - Kowalski, Jonathan W.

AU - Bek, Toke

AU - Chen, Shih Jen

AU - Dekker, Jacqueline M.

AU - Fletcher, Astrid

AU - Grauslund, Jakob

AU - Haffner, Steven

AU - Hamman, Richard F.

AU - Ikram, M. Kamran

AU - Kayama, Takamasa

AU - Klein, Barbara E.K.

AU - Klein, Ronald

AU - Krishnaiah, Sannapaneni

AU - Mayurasakorn, Korapat

AU - O'Hare, Joseph P.

AU - Orchard, Trevor J.

AU - Porta, Massimo

AU - Rema, Mohan

AU - Roy, Monique

AU - Sharma, Tarun

AU - Shaw, Jonathan

AU - Taylor, Hugh

AU - Tielsch, James M.

AU - Varma, Rohit

AU - Wang, Jie Jin

AU - Wang, Ningli

AU - West, Sheila

AU - Zu, Liang

AU - Yasuda, Miho

AU - Zhang, Xinzhi

AU - Mitchell, Paul

AU - Wong, Tien Y.

PY - 2012/3/1

Y1 - 2012/3/1

N2 - OBJECTIVE - To examine the global prevalence and major risk factors for diabetic retinopathy (DR) and vision-threatening diabetic retinopathy (VTDR) among people with diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS - A pooled analysis using individual participant data from population-based studies around the world was performed. A systematic literature review was conducted to identify all population-based studies in general populations or individuals with diabetes who had ascertained DR from retinal photographs. Studies provided data for DR end points, including any DR, proliferative DR, diabetic macular edema, and VTDR, and also major systemic risk factors. Pooled prevalence estimates were directly age-standardized to the 2010 World Diabetes Population aged 20-79 years. RESULTS - A total of 35 studies (1980-2008) provided data from 22,896 individuals with diabetes. The overall prevalence was 34.6% (95% CI 34.5-34.8) for any DR, 6.96% (6.87-7.04) for proliferative DR, 6.81% (6.74-6.89) for diabetic macular edema, and 10.2% (10.1-10.3) for VTDR. All DR prevalence end points increased with diabetes duration, hemoglobin A1c, and blood pressure levels and were higher in people with type 1 compared with type 2 diabetes. CONCLUSIONS - There are approximately 93 million people with DR, 17 million with proliferative DR, 21million with diabeticmacular edema, and 28million with VTDR worldwide. Longer diabetes duration and poorer glycemic and blood pressure control are strongly associated with DR. These data highlight the substantial worldwide public health burden of DR and the importance of modifiable risk factors in its occurrence. This study is limited by data pooled from studies at different time points, with different methodologies and population characteristics.

AB - OBJECTIVE - To examine the global prevalence and major risk factors for diabetic retinopathy (DR) and vision-threatening diabetic retinopathy (VTDR) among people with diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS - A pooled analysis using individual participant data from population-based studies around the world was performed. A systematic literature review was conducted to identify all population-based studies in general populations or individuals with diabetes who had ascertained DR from retinal photographs. Studies provided data for DR end points, including any DR, proliferative DR, diabetic macular edema, and VTDR, and also major systemic risk factors. Pooled prevalence estimates were directly age-standardized to the 2010 World Diabetes Population aged 20-79 years. RESULTS - A total of 35 studies (1980-2008) provided data from 22,896 individuals with diabetes. The overall prevalence was 34.6% (95% CI 34.5-34.8) for any DR, 6.96% (6.87-7.04) for proliferative DR, 6.81% (6.74-6.89) for diabetic macular edema, and 10.2% (10.1-10.3) for VTDR. All DR prevalence end points increased with diabetes duration, hemoglobin A1c, and blood pressure levels and were higher in people with type 1 compared with type 2 diabetes. CONCLUSIONS - There are approximately 93 million people with DR, 17 million with proliferative DR, 21million with diabeticmacular edema, and 28million with VTDR worldwide. Longer diabetes duration and poorer glycemic and blood pressure control are strongly associated with DR. These data highlight the substantial worldwide public health burden of DR and the importance of modifiable risk factors in its occurrence. This study is limited by data pooled from studies at different time points, with different methodologies and population characteristics.

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Yau JWY, Rogers SL, Kawasaki R, Lamoureux EL, Kowalski JW, Bek T et al. Global prevalence and major risk factors of diabetic retinopathy. Diabetes care. 2012 Mar 1;35(3):556-564. https://doi.org/10.2337/dc11-1909