HerMES: Candidate gravitationally lensed galaxies and lensing statistics at submillimeter wavelengths

Julie L. Wardlow, Asantha Cooray, Francesco De Bernardis, A. Amblard, V. Arumugam, H. Aussel, Andrew Baker, M. Béthermin, R. Blundell, J. Bock, A. Boselli, C. Bridge, V. Buat, D. Burgarella, R. S. Bussmann, A. Cabrera-Lavers, J. Calanog, J. M. Carpenter, C. M. Casey, N. Castro-RodríguezA. Cava, P. Chanial, E. Chapin, S. C. Chapman, D. L. Clements, A. Conley, P. Cox, C. D. Dowell, S. Dye, S. Eales, D. Farrah, P. Ferrero, A. Franceschini, D. T. Frayer, C. Frazer, Hai Fu, R. Gavazzi, J. Glenn, E. A. González Solares, M. Griffin, M. A. Gurwell, A. I. Harris, E. Hatziminaoglou, R. Hopwood, A. Hyde, E. Ibar, R. J. Ivison, S. Kim, G. Lagache, L. Levenson, L. Marchetti, G. Marsden, P. Martinez-Navajas, M. Negrello, R. Neri, H. T. Nguyen, B. O'Halloran, S. J. Oliver, A. Omont, M. J. Page, P. Panuzzo, A. Papageorgiou, C. P. Pearson, I. Pérez-Fournon, M. Pohlen, D. Riechers, D. Rigopoulou, I. G. Roseboom, M. Rowan-Robinson, B. Schulz, D. Scott, N. Scoville, N. Seymour, D. L. Shupe, A. J. Smith, A. Streblyanska, A. Strom, M. Symeonidis, M. Trichas, M. Vaccari, J. D. Vieira, M. Viero, L. Wang, C. K. Xu, L. Yan, M. Zemcov

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

95 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

We present a list of 13 candidate gravitationally lensed submillimeter galaxies (SMGs) from 95 deg2 of the Herschel Multi-tiered Extragalactic Survey, a surface density of 0.14 ± 0.04 deg-2. The selected sources have 500 μm flux densities (S 500) greater than 100 mJy. Gravitational lensing is confirmed by follow-up observations in 9 of the 13 systems (70%), and the lensing status of the four remaining sources is undetermined. We also present a supplementary sample of 29 (0.31 ± 0.06 deg-2) gravitationally lensed SMG candidates with S 500 = 80-100 mJy, which are expected to contain a higher fraction of interlopers than the primary candidates. The number counts of the candidate lensed galaxies are consistent with a simple statistical model of the lensing rate, which uses a foreground matter distribution, the intrinsic SMG number counts, and an assumed SMG redshift distribution. The model predicts that 32%-74% of our S 500 ≥ 100 mJy candidates are strongly gravitationally lensed (μ ≥ 2), with the brightest sources being the most robust; this is consistent with the observational data. Our statistical model also predicts that, on average, lensed galaxies with S 500 = 100 mJy are magnified by factors of ∼9, with apparently brighter galaxies having progressively higher average magnification, due to the shape of the intrinsic number counts. 65% of the sources are expected to have intrinsic 500 μm flux densities less than 30 mJy. Thus, samples of strongly gravitationally lensed SMGs, such as those presented here, probe below the nominal Herschel detection limit at 500 μm. They are good targets for the detailed study of the physical conditions in distant dusty, star-forming galaxies, due to the lensing magnification, which can lead to spatial resolutions of ∼0.″01 in the source plane.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number59
JournalAstrophysical Journal
Volume762
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2013

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statistics
galaxies
wavelength
wavelengths
spatial resolution
probe
magnification
flux density
lists
distribution
stars
probes
detection
rate
physical conditions
plane source

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • Space and Planetary Science

Keywords

  • gravitational lensing: strong
  • submillimeter: galaxies

Cite this

Wardlow, J. L., Cooray, A., De Bernardis, F., Amblard, A., Arumugam, V., Aussel, H., ... Zemcov, M. (2013). HerMES: Candidate gravitationally lensed galaxies and lensing statistics at submillimeter wavelengths. Astrophysical Journal, 762(1), [59]. https://doi.org/10.1088/0004-637X/762/1/59
Wardlow, Julie L. ; Cooray, Asantha ; De Bernardis, Francesco ; Amblard, A. ; Arumugam, V. ; Aussel, H. ; Baker, Andrew ; Béthermin, M. ; Blundell, R. ; Bock, J. ; Boselli, A. ; Bridge, C. ; Buat, V. ; Burgarella, D. ; Bussmann, R. S. ; Cabrera-Lavers, A. ; Calanog, J. ; Carpenter, J. M. ; Casey, C. M. ; Castro-Rodríguez, N. ; Cava, A. ; Chanial, P. ; Chapin, E. ; Chapman, S. C. ; Clements, D. L. ; Conley, A. ; Cox, P. ; Dowell, C. D. ; Dye, S. ; Eales, S. ; Farrah, D. ; Ferrero, P. ; Franceschini, A. ; Frayer, D. T. ; Frazer, C. ; Fu, Hai ; Gavazzi, R. ; Glenn, J. ; González Solares, E. A. ; Griffin, M. ; Gurwell, M. A. ; Harris, A. I. ; Hatziminaoglou, E. ; Hopwood, R. ; Hyde, A. ; Ibar, E. ; Ivison, R. J. ; Kim, S. ; Lagache, G. ; Levenson, L. ; Marchetti, L. ; Marsden, G. ; Martinez-Navajas, P. ; Negrello, M. ; Neri, R. ; Nguyen, H. T. ; O'Halloran, B. ; Oliver, S. J. ; Omont, A. ; Page, M. J. ; Panuzzo, P. ; Papageorgiou, A. ; Pearson, C. P. ; Pérez-Fournon, I. ; Pohlen, M. ; Riechers, D. ; Rigopoulou, D. ; Roseboom, I. G. ; Rowan-Robinson, M. ; Schulz, B. ; Scott, D. ; Scoville, N. ; Seymour, N. ; Shupe, D. L. ; Smith, A. J. ; Streblyanska, A. ; Strom, A. ; Symeonidis, M. ; Trichas, M. ; Vaccari, M. ; Vieira, J. D. ; Viero, M. ; Wang, L. ; Xu, C. K. ; Yan, L. ; Zemcov, M. / HerMES : Candidate gravitationally lensed galaxies and lensing statistics at submillimeter wavelengths. In: Astrophysical Journal. 2013 ; Vol. 762, No. 1.
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abstract = "We present a list of 13 candidate gravitationally lensed submillimeter galaxies (SMGs) from 95 deg2 of the Herschel Multi-tiered Extragalactic Survey, a surface density of 0.14 ± 0.04 deg-2. The selected sources have 500 μm flux densities (S 500) greater than 100 mJy. Gravitational lensing is confirmed by follow-up observations in 9 of the 13 systems (70{\%}), and the lensing status of the four remaining sources is undetermined. We also present a supplementary sample of 29 (0.31 ± 0.06 deg-2) gravitationally lensed SMG candidates with S 500 = 80-100 mJy, which are expected to contain a higher fraction of interlopers than the primary candidates. The number counts of the candidate lensed galaxies are consistent with a simple statistical model of the lensing rate, which uses a foreground matter distribution, the intrinsic SMG number counts, and an assumed SMG redshift distribution. The model predicts that 32{\%}-74{\%} of our S 500 ≥ 100 mJy candidates are strongly gravitationally lensed (μ ≥ 2), with the brightest sources being the most robust; this is consistent with the observational data. Our statistical model also predicts that, on average, lensed galaxies with S 500 = 100 mJy are magnified by factors of ∼9, with apparently brighter galaxies having progressively higher average magnification, due to the shape of the intrinsic number counts. 65{\%} of the sources are expected to have intrinsic 500 μm flux densities less than 30 mJy. Thus, samples of strongly gravitationally lensed SMGs, such as those presented here, probe below the nominal Herschel detection limit at 500 μm. They are good targets for the detailed study of the physical conditions in distant dusty, star-forming galaxies, due to the lensing magnification, which can lead to spatial resolutions of ∼0.″01 in the source plane.",
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Wardlow, JL, Cooray, A, De Bernardis, F, Amblard, A, Arumugam, V, Aussel, H, Baker, A, Béthermin, M, Blundell, R, Bock, J, Boselli, A, Bridge, C, Buat, V, Burgarella, D, Bussmann, RS, Cabrera-Lavers, A, Calanog, J, Carpenter, JM, Casey, CM, Castro-Rodríguez, N, Cava, A, Chanial, P, Chapin, E, Chapman, SC, Clements, DL, Conley, A, Cox, P, Dowell, CD, Dye, S, Eales, S, Farrah, D, Ferrero, P, Franceschini, A, Frayer, DT, Frazer, C, Fu, H, Gavazzi, R, Glenn, J, González Solares, EA, Griffin, M, Gurwell, MA, Harris, AI, Hatziminaoglou, E, Hopwood, R, Hyde, A, Ibar, E, Ivison, RJ, Kim, S, Lagache, G, Levenson, L, Marchetti, L, Marsden, G, Martinez-Navajas, P, Negrello, M, Neri, R, Nguyen, HT, O'Halloran, B, Oliver, SJ, Omont, A, Page, MJ, Panuzzo, P, Papageorgiou, A, Pearson, CP, Pérez-Fournon, I, Pohlen, M, Riechers, D, Rigopoulou, D, Roseboom, IG, Rowan-Robinson, M, Schulz, B, Scott, D, Scoville, N, Seymour, N, Shupe, DL, Smith, AJ, Streblyanska, A, Strom, A, Symeonidis, M, Trichas, M, Vaccari, M, Vieira, JD, Viero, M, Wang, L, Xu, CK, Yan, L & Zemcov, M 2013, 'HerMES: Candidate gravitationally lensed galaxies and lensing statistics at submillimeter wavelengths', Astrophysical Journal, vol. 762, no. 1, 59. https://doi.org/10.1088/0004-637X/762/1/59

HerMES : Candidate gravitationally lensed galaxies and lensing statistics at submillimeter wavelengths. / Wardlow, Julie L.; Cooray, Asantha; De Bernardis, Francesco; Amblard, A.; Arumugam, V.; Aussel, H.; Baker, Andrew; Béthermin, M.; Blundell, R.; Bock, J.; Boselli, A.; Bridge, C.; Buat, V.; Burgarella, D.; Bussmann, R. S.; Cabrera-Lavers, A.; Calanog, J.; Carpenter, J. M.; Casey, C. M.; Castro-Rodríguez, N.; Cava, A.; Chanial, P.; Chapin, E.; Chapman, S. C.; Clements, D. L.; Conley, A.; Cox, P.; Dowell, C. D.; Dye, S.; Eales, S.; Farrah, D.; Ferrero, P.; Franceschini, A.; Frayer, D. T.; Frazer, C.; Fu, Hai; Gavazzi, R.; Glenn, J.; González Solares, E. A.; Griffin, M.; Gurwell, M. A.; Harris, A. I.; Hatziminaoglou, E.; Hopwood, R.; Hyde, A.; Ibar, E.; Ivison, R. J.; Kim, S.; Lagache, G.; Levenson, L.; Marchetti, L.; Marsden, G.; Martinez-Navajas, P.; Negrello, M.; Neri, R.; Nguyen, H. T.; O'Halloran, B.; Oliver, S. J.; Omont, A.; Page, M. J.; Panuzzo, P.; Papageorgiou, A.; Pearson, C. P.; Pérez-Fournon, I.; Pohlen, M.; Riechers, D.; Rigopoulou, D.; Roseboom, I. G.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Schulz, B.; Scott, D.; Scoville, N.; Seymour, N.; Shupe, D. L.; Smith, A. J.; Streblyanska, A.; Strom, A.; Symeonidis, M.; Trichas, M.; Vaccari, M.; Vieira, J. D.; Viero, M.; Wang, L.; Xu, C. K.; Yan, L.; Zemcov, M.

In: Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 762, No. 1, 59, 01.01.2013.

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

TY - JOUR

T1 - HerMES

T2 - Candidate gravitationally lensed galaxies and lensing statistics at submillimeter wavelengths

AU - Wardlow, Julie L.

AU - Cooray, Asantha

AU - De Bernardis, Francesco

AU - Amblard, A.

AU - Arumugam, V.

AU - Aussel, H.

AU - Baker, Andrew

AU - Béthermin, M.

AU - Blundell, R.

AU - Bock, J.

AU - Boselli, A.

AU - Bridge, C.

AU - Buat, V.

AU - Burgarella, D.

AU - Bussmann, R. S.

AU - Cabrera-Lavers, A.

AU - Calanog, J.

AU - Carpenter, J. M.

AU - Casey, C. M.

AU - Castro-Rodríguez, N.

AU - Cava, A.

AU - Chanial, P.

AU - Chapin, E.

AU - Chapman, S. C.

AU - Clements, D. L.

AU - Conley, A.

AU - Cox, P.

AU - Dowell, C. D.

AU - Dye, S.

AU - Eales, S.

AU - Farrah, D.

AU - Ferrero, P.

AU - Franceschini, A.

AU - Frayer, D. T.

AU - Frazer, C.

AU - Fu, Hai

AU - Gavazzi, R.

AU - Glenn, J.

AU - González Solares, E. A.

AU - Griffin, M.

AU - Gurwell, M. A.

AU - Harris, A. I.

AU - Hatziminaoglou, E.

AU - Hopwood, R.

AU - Hyde, A.

AU - Ibar, E.

AU - Ivison, R. J.

AU - Kim, S.

AU - Lagache, G.

AU - Levenson, L.

AU - Marchetti, L.

AU - Marsden, G.

AU - Martinez-Navajas, P.

AU - Negrello, M.

AU - Neri, R.

AU - Nguyen, H. T.

AU - O'Halloran, B.

AU - Oliver, S. J.

AU - Omont, A.

AU - Page, M. J.

AU - Panuzzo, P.

AU - Papageorgiou, A.

AU - Pearson, C. P.

AU - Pérez-Fournon, I.

AU - Pohlen, M.

AU - Riechers, D.

AU - Rigopoulou, D.

AU - Roseboom, I. G.

AU - Rowan-Robinson, M.

AU - Schulz, B.

AU - Scott, D.

AU - Scoville, N.

AU - Seymour, N.

AU - Shupe, D. L.

AU - Smith, A. J.

AU - Streblyanska, A.

AU - Strom, A.

AU - Symeonidis, M.

AU - Trichas, M.

AU - Vaccari, M.

AU - Vieira, J. D.

AU - Viero, M.

AU - Wang, L.

AU - Xu, C. K.

AU - Yan, L.

AU - Zemcov, M.

PY - 2013/1/1

Y1 - 2013/1/1

N2 - We present a list of 13 candidate gravitationally lensed submillimeter galaxies (SMGs) from 95 deg2 of the Herschel Multi-tiered Extragalactic Survey, a surface density of 0.14 ± 0.04 deg-2. The selected sources have 500 μm flux densities (S 500) greater than 100 mJy. Gravitational lensing is confirmed by follow-up observations in 9 of the 13 systems (70%), and the lensing status of the four remaining sources is undetermined. We also present a supplementary sample of 29 (0.31 ± 0.06 deg-2) gravitationally lensed SMG candidates with S 500 = 80-100 mJy, which are expected to contain a higher fraction of interlopers than the primary candidates. The number counts of the candidate lensed galaxies are consistent with a simple statistical model of the lensing rate, which uses a foreground matter distribution, the intrinsic SMG number counts, and an assumed SMG redshift distribution. The model predicts that 32%-74% of our S 500 ≥ 100 mJy candidates are strongly gravitationally lensed (μ ≥ 2), with the brightest sources being the most robust; this is consistent with the observational data. Our statistical model also predicts that, on average, lensed galaxies with S 500 = 100 mJy are magnified by factors of ∼9, with apparently brighter galaxies having progressively higher average magnification, due to the shape of the intrinsic number counts. 65% of the sources are expected to have intrinsic 500 μm flux densities less than 30 mJy. Thus, samples of strongly gravitationally lensed SMGs, such as those presented here, probe below the nominal Herschel detection limit at 500 μm. They are good targets for the detailed study of the physical conditions in distant dusty, star-forming galaxies, due to the lensing magnification, which can lead to spatial resolutions of ∼0.″01 in the source plane.

AB - We present a list of 13 candidate gravitationally lensed submillimeter galaxies (SMGs) from 95 deg2 of the Herschel Multi-tiered Extragalactic Survey, a surface density of 0.14 ± 0.04 deg-2. The selected sources have 500 μm flux densities (S 500) greater than 100 mJy. Gravitational lensing is confirmed by follow-up observations in 9 of the 13 systems (70%), and the lensing status of the four remaining sources is undetermined. We also present a supplementary sample of 29 (0.31 ± 0.06 deg-2) gravitationally lensed SMG candidates with S 500 = 80-100 mJy, which are expected to contain a higher fraction of interlopers than the primary candidates. The number counts of the candidate lensed galaxies are consistent with a simple statistical model of the lensing rate, which uses a foreground matter distribution, the intrinsic SMG number counts, and an assumed SMG redshift distribution. The model predicts that 32%-74% of our S 500 ≥ 100 mJy candidates are strongly gravitationally lensed (μ ≥ 2), with the brightest sources being the most robust; this is consistent with the observational data. Our statistical model also predicts that, on average, lensed galaxies with S 500 = 100 mJy are magnified by factors of ∼9, with apparently brighter galaxies having progressively higher average magnification, due to the shape of the intrinsic number counts. 65% of the sources are expected to have intrinsic 500 μm flux densities less than 30 mJy. Thus, samples of strongly gravitationally lensed SMGs, such as those presented here, probe below the nominal Herschel detection limit at 500 μm. They are good targets for the detailed study of the physical conditions in distant dusty, star-forming galaxies, due to the lensing magnification, which can lead to spatial resolutions of ∼0.″01 in the source plane.

KW - gravitational lensing: strong

KW - submillimeter: galaxies

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84871315028&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84871315028&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - https://doi.org/10.1088/0004-637X/762/1/59

DO - https://doi.org/10.1088/0004-637X/762/1/59

M3 - Review article

VL - 762

JO - Astrophysical Journal

JF - Astrophysical Journal

SN - 0004-637X

IS - 1

M1 - 59

ER -