Identification of source lithology in the Hawaiian and Canary Islands: Implications for origins

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Abstract

Results are reported of an exploration of mantle source lithology for intraplate magmas using whole-rock and olivine phenocryst compositions. This analysis includes modern mid-ocean ridge basalts and Archean komatiites as low- and high-temperature reference frames. It is shown that the Ni, Ca, Mn, and Fe/Mn contents of olivine phenocrysts in modern mid-ocean ridge basalts and Archean komatiites are consistent with a normal peridotite source. In contrast, olivine phenocrysts in shield-building lavas on Hawaii are higher in Ni and Fe/Mn, and lower in Mn and Ca than those expected to crystallize from meltsofanormalperidotitesource, and point to the importance of pyroxenite as proposed by Sobolev and co-workers. Hawaiian shield stage lavas and their olivine phenocrysts are similar to those expected from partial melts ofa100% stage 2 pyroxenite source. Such a source might form from a variety of melt-rock, melt-melt, and rock-rock reactions. Primary pyroxenite-derived magmas have a range of SiO2 contents thatarepositivelycorrelatedwith187Os/188Osand negativelycorrelated with 3He/4He. These results are consistent with a Hawaiian plume containing recycled crust within a peridotite matrix. Variable amounts of free silica are inferred in Hawaiian pyroxenite sources, which contribute to the production of SiO2-rich magmas. In contrast, peridotite and olivine pyroxenite melting are inferred to produce SiO2-poor pre-shield magmas at Loihi. The interaction of SiO2-rich and -poor magmas in the Hawaiian plume will trigger crystallization, not mixing. Mixing is permitted at low pressures in melt conduits and magma chambers, and work on olivine-hosted melt inclusions will be useful to evaluate its importance. In contrast to Hawaii, many ocean island basalts in localities such as the Canary Islands are deficient in SiO2, and may have been generated by partial meltingofolivine pyroxenitesthat formed bysolid-state reaction between recycled crust + peridotite in the lower mantle. There is likely to be a wide range of whole-rock pyroxenite compositions in the mantle, as well as significant variability in Mn and Fe/Mn in both peridotite partial melts and their olivine phenocrysts. In general, there are not likely to be well-defined end-member peridotite and pyroxenite sources in the mantle. Nevertheless, taxonomical difficulties encountered in source lithology identification may yield rich rewards, such as a better understanding of the relationship between lithological diversity in the lower mantle and itspetrological expression in intraplate magmatism.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numberegq075
Pages (from-to)113-146
Number of pages34
JournalJournal of Petrology
Volume52
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2011

Fingerprint

Canary Islands
Lithology
pyroxenite
lithology
peridotite
olivine
melt
Earth mantle
Rocks
rocks
basalt
shield
rock
mid-ocean ridges
lower mantle
mid-ocean ridge basalt
plumes
Archean
crusts
plume

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Geochemistry and Petrology
  • Geophysics

Keywords

  • Mantle
  • Olivine
  • Peridotite
  • Pyroxenite

Cite this

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title = "Identification of source lithology in the Hawaiian and Canary Islands: Implications for origins",
abstract = "Results are reported of an exploration of mantle source lithology for intraplate magmas using whole-rock and olivine phenocryst compositions. This analysis includes modern mid-ocean ridge basalts and Archean komatiites as low- and high-temperature reference frames. It is shown that the Ni, Ca, Mn, and Fe/Mn contents of olivine phenocrysts in modern mid-ocean ridge basalts and Archean komatiites are consistent with a normal peridotite source. In contrast, olivine phenocrysts in shield-building lavas on Hawaii are higher in Ni and Fe/Mn, and lower in Mn and Ca than those expected to crystallize from meltsofanormalperidotitesource, and point to the importance of pyroxenite as proposed by Sobolev and co-workers. Hawaiian shield stage lavas and their olivine phenocrysts are similar to those expected from partial melts ofa100{\%} stage 2 pyroxenite source. Such a source might form from a variety of melt-rock, melt-melt, and rock-rock reactions. Primary pyroxenite-derived magmas have a range of SiO2 contents thatarepositivelycorrelatedwith187Os/188Osand negativelycorrelated with 3He/4He. These results are consistent with a Hawaiian plume containing recycled crust within a peridotite matrix. Variable amounts of free silica are inferred in Hawaiian pyroxenite sources, which contribute to the production of SiO2-rich magmas. In contrast, peridotite and olivine pyroxenite melting are inferred to produce SiO2-poor pre-shield magmas at Loihi. The interaction of SiO2-rich and -poor magmas in the Hawaiian plume will trigger crystallization, not mixing. Mixing is permitted at low pressures in melt conduits and magma chambers, and work on olivine-hosted melt inclusions will be useful to evaluate its importance. In contrast to Hawaii, many ocean island basalts in localities such as the Canary Islands are deficient in SiO2, and may have been generated by partial meltingofolivine pyroxenitesthat formed bysolid-state reaction between recycled crust + peridotite in the lower mantle. There is likely to be a wide range of whole-rock pyroxenite compositions in the mantle, as well as significant variability in Mn and Fe/Mn in both peridotite partial melts and their olivine phenocrysts. In general, there are not likely to be well-defined end-member peridotite and pyroxenite sources in the mantle. Nevertheless, taxonomical difficulties encountered in source lithology identification may yield rich rewards, such as a better understanding of the relationship between lithological diversity in the lower mantle and itspetrological expression in intraplate magmatism.",
keywords = "Mantle, Olivine, Peridotite, Pyroxenite",
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Identification of source lithology in the Hawaiian and Canary Islands : Implications for origins. / Herzberg, Claude.

In: Journal of Petrology, Vol. 52, No. 1, egq075, 01.01.2011, p. 113-146.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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