Implementing 1.5 mm internal diameter columns into analytical workflows

Benjamin P. Libert, Justin M. Godinho, Samuel W. Foster, James P. Grinias, Barry E. Boyes

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The use of smaller column diameters in liquid chromatography (LC) is often associated with capillary LC. Although there are many analytical benefits gained by adapting this format, routine use continues to be challenging due to column fragility and extra column dispersion. Bridging the gap between routinely used 2.1 mm columns and capillary bore columns allows for a sequential but far from insignificant increase in performance without the need for specialized equipment associated with very low dispersion LC systems. Moreover, an incremental decrease in column internal diameter (i.d.) allows for similar mass load (avoiding column overload that may be observed in much larger decreases in i.d. without trapping) and thus an increase in measured signal. As such, 1.5 mm i.d. columns provide an alternative intermediate dimension between the more regularly used 2.1 mm i.d. columns and 1 mm i.d. columns. These columns balance an increase in sensitivity compared to 2.1 mm i.d. columns (theoretically doubling the time-domain peak area in mass sensitive detectors for the same mass load), while mitigating the efficiency losses due to extra-column dispersion effects that are commonly observed with 1.0 mm i.d. columns. Here, the use of 1.5 mm i.d. columns was applied to LC/UV analysis of small molecules and LC/MS methods for the analysis of monoclonal antibodies. With equivalent mass load on column, the 1.5 mm i.d. columns provide two-to-threefold improvement in analyte peak area signal for small molecules as well as intact, subunit, and peptide levels of antibody analysis. Peak height was also increased using the 1.5 mm i.d. column, although the scale of increase varies between isocratic and gradient modes, likely due to differences in system dispersion effects and variation in electrospray ionization efficiency at different flow rates.

Original languageAmerican English
Article number463207
JournalJournal of Chromatography A
StatePublished - Aug 2 2022

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Analytical Chemistry
  • Biochemistry
  • Organic Chemistry


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