Implicit and Explicit Consequences of Exposure to Violent and Misogynous Rap Music

Laurie A. Rudman, Matthew R. Lee

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

94 Scopus citations


In two experiments, primed subjects were exposed to violent and misogynistic rap music and control subjects were exposed to popular music. Experiment 1 showed that violent and misogynistic rap music increased the automatic associations underlying evaluative racial stereotypes in high and low prejudiced subjects alike. By contrast, explicit stereotyping was dependent on priming and subjects’ prejudice level. In Experiment 2, the priming manipulation was followed by a seemingly unrelated person perception task in which subjects rated Black or White targets described as behaving ambiguously. As expected, primed subjects judged a Black target less favorably than a White target. By contrast, control subjects rated Black and White targets similarly. Subjects’ level of prejudice did not moderate these findings, suggesting the robustness of priming effects on social judgments.

Original languageAmerican English
Pages (from-to)133-150
Number of pages18
JournalGroup Processes & Intergroup Relations
Issue number2
StatePublished - Apr 2002

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Social Psychology
  • Cultural Studies
  • Communication
  • Arts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
  • Sociology and Political Science


  • The Implicit Association Test
  • implicit stereotypes
  • social cognition


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