Recent progress in (K 0.44,Na 0.52,Li 0.04)O 3-based ceramics (KNN) with special emphasis on (K 0.44,Na 0.52,Li 0.04) (Nb 0.84, Ta 0.10,Sb 0.06)O 3 (KNN-LT-LS) is reviewed concisely. The base KNN and its compositional derivatives are analyzed in terms of dopant-property relationships, which are then extended to the ternary derivatives. The effects of processing conditions such as humidity, precursor purity, and oxygen partial pressure during sintering are elaborated on from a phenomenological perspective. It is also shown that the spontaneous polarization is sensitive to the processing route chosen for synthesis (mixed oxide versus perovskite routes). Special attention is devoted to the discussion of the morphotropic phase boundary (MPB) dilemma in the KNN-LT-LS system, where it is shown that the origin of high piezoelectric activity is actually due to a polymorphic transition at room temperature. It is shown that prototype transducers based on pure and 1 mol% Ba 2+ doped KNN-LT-LS exhibit performance metrics comparable to those fabricated using PZT-5H. Overall, KNN- LT-LS ceramics show great promise for lead-free applications, although issues such as temperature dependence of properties and strong sensitivity to processing conditions remain as the 2 major challenges.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Number of pages||9|
|Journal||IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control|
|State||Published - Aug 1 2009|
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Electrical and Electronic Engineering
- Acoustics and Ultrasonics