Kinetics of tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) reactions with H2SO4, HNO3 and HCl

Implication for hydrometallurgy of electronic wastes

Yin Zhong, Dan Li, Zhe Mao, Weilin Huang, Ping'an Peng, Pei Chen, Jun Mei

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

9 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Hydrometallurgy is an acid leaching based process widely used for recovering precious metals from electronic wastes (e-wastes). The effects of acid leaching on the fate of brominated flame retardants (BFRs) in typical hydrometallurgical processes remain largely unknown. This study was aimed at evaluating the fate of tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), a commonly used BFR, in three acid leaching reagents (i.e. H2SO4, HNO3, and HCl) commonly used in hydrometallurgy. It was found that the reactions of TBBPA with concentrated H2SO4 followed a pseudo-zero-order rate and the reaction rates declined rapidly as the concentrations of H2SO4 decreased. In contrast, TBBPA could be easily transformed in less concentrated HNO3 solutions (<21.7wt%) and the reactions followed a pseudo-first-order rate. The reaction products identified by GC-MS indicated different transformation pathways of TBBPA in H2SO4 and HNO3. HCl or HCl/H2SO4 mixtures (3:1, v/v) did not appear to react with TBBPA, while aqua regia (3:1 HCl/HNO3, v/v) reacted violently with TBBPA and led to almost complete disappearance of TBBPA within a minute. It suggested that HNO3 significantly affected the fate of TBBPA and the use of HNO3 as leaching reagents in hydrometallurgy of e-wastes should be carefully evaluated. Collectively, our findings of distinct fate of TBBPA in different acid leaching reagents provided fundamental information for design of hydrometallurgical treatment of e-wastes to minimize acid reactions with BFRs within plastics matrix and to maximize acid leaching efficiency for metals recycling processes.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)196-201
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Hazardous Materials
Volume270
DOIs
StatePublished - Apr 15 2014

Fingerprint

Electronic Waste
Hydrometallurgy
Leaching
leaching
kinetics
Kinetics
Acids
acid
Flame retardants
Flame Retardants
precious metal
Precious metals
Metals
Reaction products
reaction rate
Reaction rates
tetrabromobisphenol A
electronic waste
Recycling
recycling

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Pollution
  • Waste Management and Disposal
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis
  • Environmental Engineering
  • Environmental Chemistry

Keywords

  • Acid
  • Electronic wastes
  • Recycling
  • TBBPA
  • Transformation

Cite this

@article{dc8faf11ccdb438699a15213431faf08,
title = "Kinetics of tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) reactions with H2SO4, HNO3 and HCl: Implication for hydrometallurgy of electronic wastes",
abstract = "Hydrometallurgy is an acid leaching based process widely used for recovering precious metals from electronic wastes (e-wastes). The effects of acid leaching on the fate of brominated flame retardants (BFRs) in typical hydrometallurgical processes remain largely unknown. This study was aimed at evaluating the fate of tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), a commonly used BFR, in three acid leaching reagents (i.e. H2SO4, HNO3, and HCl) commonly used in hydrometallurgy. It was found that the reactions of TBBPA with concentrated H2SO4 followed a pseudo-zero-order rate and the reaction rates declined rapidly as the concentrations of H2SO4 decreased. In contrast, TBBPA could be easily transformed in less concentrated HNO3 solutions (<21.7wt{\%}) and the reactions followed a pseudo-first-order rate. The reaction products identified by GC-MS indicated different transformation pathways of TBBPA in H2SO4 and HNO3. HCl or HCl/H2SO4 mixtures (3:1, v/v) did not appear to react with TBBPA, while aqua regia (3:1 HCl/HNO3, v/v) reacted violently with TBBPA and led to almost complete disappearance of TBBPA within a minute. It suggested that HNO3 significantly affected the fate of TBBPA and the use of HNO3 as leaching reagents in hydrometallurgy of e-wastes should be carefully evaluated. Collectively, our findings of distinct fate of TBBPA in different acid leaching reagents provided fundamental information for design of hydrometallurgical treatment of e-wastes to minimize acid reactions with BFRs within plastics matrix and to maximize acid leaching efficiency for metals recycling processes.",
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author = "Yin Zhong and Dan Li and Zhe Mao and Weilin Huang and Ping'an Peng and Pei Chen and Jun Mei",
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language = "English (US)",
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pages = "196--201",
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Kinetics of tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) reactions with H2SO4, HNO3 and HCl : Implication for hydrometallurgy of electronic wastes. / Zhong, Yin; Li, Dan; Mao, Zhe; Huang, Weilin; Peng, Ping'an; Chen, Pei; Mei, Jun.

In: Journal of Hazardous Materials, Vol. 270, 15.04.2014, p. 196-201.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Kinetics of tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) reactions with H2SO4, HNO3 and HCl

T2 - Implication for hydrometallurgy of electronic wastes

AU - Zhong, Yin

AU - Li, Dan

AU - Mao, Zhe

AU - Huang, Weilin

AU - Peng, Ping'an

AU - Chen, Pei

AU - Mei, Jun

PY - 2014/4/15

Y1 - 2014/4/15

N2 - Hydrometallurgy is an acid leaching based process widely used for recovering precious metals from electronic wastes (e-wastes). The effects of acid leaching on the fate of brominated flame retardants (BFRs) in typical hydrometallurgical processes remain largely unknown. This study was aimed at evaluating the fate of tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), a commonly used BFR, in three acid leaching reagents (i.e. H2SO4, HNO3, and HCl) commonly used in hydrometallurgy. It was found that the reactions of TBBPA with concentrated H2SO4 followed a pseudo-zero-order rate and the reaction rates declined rapidly as the concentrations of H2SO4 decreased. In contrast, TBBPA could be easily transformed in less concentrated HNO3 solutions (<21.7wt%) and the reactions followed a pseudo-first-order rate. The reaction products identified by GC-MS indicated different transformation pathways of TBBPA in H2SO4 and HNO3. HCl or HCl/H2SO4 mixtures (3:1, v/v) did not appear to react with TBBPA, while aqua regia (3:1 HCl/HNO3, v/v) reacted violently with TBBPA and led to almost complete disappearance of TBBPA within a minute. It suggested that HNO3 significantly affected the fate of TBBPA and the use of HNO3 as leaching reagents in hydrometallurgy of e-wastes should be carefully evaluated. Collectively, our findings of distinct fate of TBBPA in different acid leaching reagents provided fundamental information for design of hydrometallurgical treatment of e-wastes to minimize acid reactions with BFRs within plastics matrix and to maximize acid leaching efficiency for metals recycling processes.

AB - Hydrometallurgy is an acid leaching based process widely used for recovering precious metals from electronic wastes (e-wastes). The effects of acid leaching on the fate of brominated flame retardants (BFRs) in typical hydrometallurgical processes remain largely unknown. This study was aimed at evaluating the fate of tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), a commonly used BFR, in three acid leaching reagents (i.e. H2SO4, HNO3, and HCl) commonly used in hydrometallurgy. It was found that the reactions of TBBPA with concentrated H2SO4 followed a pseudo-zero-order rate and the reaction rates declined rapidly as the concentrations of H2SO4 decreased. In contrast, TBBPA could be easily transformed in less concentrated HNO3 solutions (<21.7wt%) and the reactions followed a pseudo-first-order rate. The reaction products identified by GC-MS indicated different transformation pathways of TBBPA in H2SO4 and HNO3. HCl or HCl/H2SO4 mixtures (3:1, v/v) did not appear to react with TBBPA, while aqua regia (3:1 HCl/HNO3, v/v) reacted violently with TBBPA and led to almost complete disappearance of TBBPA within a minute. It suggested that HNO3 significantly affected the fate of TBBPA and the use of HNO3 as leaching reagents in hydrometallurgy of e-wastes should be carefully evaluated. Collectively, our findings of distinct fate of TBBPA in different acid leaching reagents provided fundamental information for design of hydrometallurgical treatment of e-wastes to minimize acid reactions with BFRs within plastics matrix and to maximize acid leaching efficiency for metals recycling processes.

KW - Acid

KW - Electronic wastes

KW - Recycling

KW - TBBPA

KW - Transformation

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DO - https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2014.01.032

M3 - Article

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SP - 196

EP - 201

JO - Journal of Hazardous Materials

JF - Journal of Hazardous Materials

SN - 0304-3894

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