Ligament tissue engineering: An evolutionary materials science approach

Cato T. Laurencin, Joseph W. Freeman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

230 Scopus citations


The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is important for knee stabilization. Unfortunately, it is also the most commonly injured intra-articular ligament. Due to poor vascularization, the ACL has inferior healing capability and is usually replaced after significant damage has occurred. Currently available replacements have a host of limitations, this has prompted the search for tissue-engineered solutions for ACL repair. Presently investigated scaffolds range from twisted fiber architectures composed of silk fibers to complex three-dimensional braided structures composed of poly (l-lactic acid) fibers. The purpose of these tissue-engineered constructs is to apply approaches such as the use of porous scaffolds, use of cells, and the application of growth factors to promote ligament tissue regeneration while providing mechanical properties similar to natural ligament.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)7530-7536
Number of pages7
Issue number36
StatePublished - Dec 2005
Externally publishedYes

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Bioengineering
  • Ceramics and Composites
  • Biophysics
  • Biomaterials
  • Mechanics of Materials


  • Anterior cruciate ligament
  • Scaffold
  • Tissue engineering


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