Localization, conjugation, and function of salicylic acid in tobacco during the hypersensitive reaction to tobacco mosaic virus

Alexander J. Enyedi, Nasser Yalpani, Paul Silverman, Ilya Raskin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

344 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Salicylic acid (SA) is hypothesized to be a natural signal that triggers the systemic induction of pathogenesis-related proteins and disease resistance in tobacco. When Xanthi-nc (NN genotype) tobacco was inoculated with tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) there was an increase in endogenous SA in both inoculated and virus-free leaves. The highest levels of SA were detected in and around necrotic lesions that formed in response to TMV. Chemical and enzymatic hydrolysis of extracts from TMV-inoculated leaves demonstrated the presence of a SA conjugate tentatively identified as O-β-D-glucosyl-SA. The SA conjugate was detected only in leaves that contained necrotic lesions and was not detected in phloem exudates or uninoculated leaves of TMV-inoculated Xanthi-nc tobacco. When exogenous SA was fed to excised tobacco leaves, it was metabolized within 10 hr. However, this reduction in free SA did not prevent the subsequent accumulation of the PR-1 family of pathogenesis-related proteins. The absence of SA accumulation in TMV-inoculated tobacco plants incubated at 32°C was not a result of the glucosylation of SA. The addition of SA to the medium elevated levels of SA in the leaves of virus-free tobacco grown hydroponically. Increasing the endogenous level of SA in leaves to those naturally observed during systemic acquired resistance resulted in increased resistance to TMV, expressed as a reduction in lesion area. These data further support the hypothesis that SA is a likely natural inducer of pathogenesis-related proteins and systemic acquired resistance in TMV-inoculated Xanthi-nc tobacco.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2480-2484
Number of pages5
JournalProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Volume89
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 1992

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Tobacco Mosaic Virus
Salicylic Acid
Tobacco
Viruses
Phloem
Proteins
Disease Resistance
Exudates and Transudates

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • General

Keywords

  • Glucosyltransferase
  • Pathogenesis-related proteins
  • Signal transduction
  • Systemic acquired resistance

Cite this

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title = "Localization, conjugation, and function of salicylic acid in tobacco during the hypersensitive reaction to tobacco mosaic virus",
abstract = "Salicylic acid (SA) is hypothesized to be a natural signal that triggers the systemic induction of pathogenesis-related proteins and disease resistance in tobacco. When Xanthi-nc (NN genotype) tobacco was inoculated with tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) there was an increase in endogenous SA in both inoculated and virus-free leaves. The highest levels of SA were detected in and around necrotic lesions that formed in response to TMV. Chemical and enzymatic hydrolysis of extracts from TMV-inoculated leaves demonstrated the presence of a SA conjugate tentatively identified as O-β-D-glucosyl-SA. The SA conjugate was detected only in leaves that contained necrotic lesions and was not detected in phloem exudates or uninoculated leaves of TMV-inoculated Xanthi-nc tobacco. When exogenous SA was fed to excised tobacco leaves, it was metabolized within 10 hr. However, this reduction in free SA did not prevent the subsequent accumulation of the PR-1 family of pathogenesis-related proteins. The absence of SA accumulation in TMV-inoculated tobacco plants incubated at 32°C was not a result of the glucosylation of SA. The addition of SA to the medium elevated levels of SA in the leaves of virus-free tobacco grown hydroponically. Increasing the endogenous level of SA in leaves to those naturally observed during systemic acquired resistance resulted in increased resistance to TMV, expressed as a reduction in lesion area. These data further support the hypothesis that SA is a likely natural inducer of pathogenesis-related proteins and systemic acquired resistance in TMV-inoculated Xanthi-nc tobacco.",
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Localization, conjugation, and function of salicylic acid in tobacco during the hypersensitive reaction to tobacco mosaic virus. / Enyedi, Alexander J.; Yalpani, Nasser; Silverman, Paul; Raskin, Ilya.

In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, Vol. 89, No. 6, 01.01.1992, p. 2480-2484.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Localization, conjugation, and function of salicylic acid in tobacco during the hypersensitive reaction to tobacco mosaic virus

AU - Enyedi, Alexander J.

AU - Yalpani, Nasser

AU - Silverman, Paul

AU - Raskin, Ilya

PY - 1992/1/1

Y1 - 1992/1/1

N2 - Salicylic acid (SA) is hypothesized to be a natural signal that triggers the systemic induction of pathogenesis-related proteins and disease resistance in tobacco. When Xanthi-nc (NN genotype) tobacco was inoculated with tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) there was an increase in endogenous SA in both inoculated and virus-free leaves. The highest levels of SA were detected in and around necrotic lesions that formed in response to TMV. Chemical and enzymatic hydrolysis of extracts from TMV-inoculated leaves demonstrated the presence of a SA conjugate tentatively identified as O-β-D-glucosyl-SA. The SA conjugate was detected only in leaves that contained necrotic lesions and was not detected in phloem exudates or uninoculated leaves of TMV-inoculated Xanthi-nc tobacco. When exogenous SA was fed to excised tobacco leaves, it was metabolized within 10 hr. However, this reduction in free SA did not prevent the subsequent accumulation of the PR-1 family of pathogenesis-related proteins. The absence of SA accumulation in TMV-inoculated tobacco plants incubated at 32°C was not a result of the glucosylation of SA. The addition of SA to the medium elevated levels of SA in the leaves of virus-free tobacco grown hydroponically. Increasing the endogenous level of SA in leaves to those naturally observed during systemic acquired resistance resulted in increased resistance to TMV, expressed as a reduction in lesion area. These data further support the hypothesis that SA is a likely natural inducer of pathogenesis-related proteins and systemic acquired resistance in TMV-inoculated Xanthi-nc tobacco.

AB - Salicylic acid (SA) is hypothesized to be a natural signal that triggers the systemic induction of pathogenesis-related proteins and disease resistance in tobacco. When Xanthi-nc (NN genotype) tobacco was inoculated with tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) there was an increase in endogenous SA in both inoculated and virus-free leaves. The highest levels of SA were detected in and around necrotic lesions that formed in response to TMV. Chemical and enzymatic hydrolysis of extracts from TMV-inoculated leaves demonstrated the presence of a SA conjugate tentatively identified as O-β-D-glucosyl-SA. The SA conjugate was detected only in leaves that contained necrotic lesions and was not detected in phloem exudates or uninoculated leaves of TMV-inoculated Xanthi-nc tobacco. When exogenous SA was fed to excised tobacco leaves, it was metabolized within 10 hr. However, this reduction in free SA did not prevent the subsequent accumulation of the PR-1 family of pathogenesis-related proteins. The absence of SA accumulation in TMV-inoculated tobacco plants incubated at 32°C was not a result of the glucosylation of SA. The addition of SA to the medium elevated levels of SA in the leaves of virus-free tobacco grown hydroponically. Increasing the endogenous level of SA in leaves to those naturally observed during systemic acquired resistance resulted in increased resistance to TMV, expressed as a reduction in lesion area. These data further support the hypothesis that SA is a likely natural inducer of pathogenesis-related proteins and systemic acquired resistance in TMV-inoculated Xanthi-nc tobacco.

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