Low-weight fractions of graphene and hydroxyapatite enhance mechanics in photocured methacrylate adhesives

Zinah N. Alabdali, Emanuel Irizarry, Mary P. Reiter, Ali Ashraf, Jennifer K. Lynch-Branzoi, Adrian B. Mann

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


In many applications, it is desirable for photocured adhesives to have high-mechanical strength in the cured state, but relatively low viscosity when liquid. This was achieved by adding less than 0.5 wt% hydroxyapatite and graphene to methyl methacrylate with diurethane dimethacrylate (UDMA-MMA). Nanoindentation shows hardness increasing by 30–40% and indentation modulus by >30% compared to UDMA-MMA on its own. Rheometry shows only a small increase in uncured viscosity for the liquid state. The additives affect the optical properties, mobility of free radicals, photocuring, and degree of conversion, the effects of which are seen in Fourier transform infrared and micro-Raman spectra. Thermographic images taken during curing show that the additives impact the photocuring process. In addition, changes in intermolecular bonding are seen in the vibrational spectra when the additives are present. The enhanced mechanical properties are attributed to the observed changes in photocuring and bonding.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number50442
JournalJournal of Applied Polymer Science
Issue number20
StatePublished - May 20 2021

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Chemistry(all)
  • Surfaces, Coatings and Films
  • Polymers and Plastics
  • Materials Chemistry


  • adhesives
  • composites
  • fullerenes
  • graphene
  • mechanical properties
  • nanotubes
  • spectroscopy


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