Over the last decade, the composition of the gut microbiota has been found to correlate with the outcomes of cancer patients treated with immunotherapy. Accumulating evidence points to the various mechanisms by which intestinal bacteria act on distal tumors and how to harness this complex ecosystem to circumvent primary resistance to immune checkpoint inhibitors. Here, we review the state of the microbiota field in the context of melanoma, the recent breakthroughs in defining microbial modes of action, and how to modulate the microbiota to enhance response to cancer immunotherapy. The host-microbe interaction may be deciphered by the use of “omics” technologies, and will guide patient stratification and the development of microbiota-centered interventions. Efforts needed to advance the field and current gaps of knowledge are also discussed.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cancer Research