Microbiome perturbation by oral vancomycin reduces plasma concentration of two gut-derived uremic solutes, indoxyl sulfate and p -cresyl sulfate, in end-stage renal disease

Lama Nazzal, Julia Roberts, Prabhjot Singh, Sachin Jhawar, Albert Matalon, Zhan Gao, Robert Holzman, Len Liebes, Martin J. Blaser, Jerome Lowenstein

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

32 Scopus citations

Abstract

Background Observational studies have suggested a relationship between the plasma concentration of indoxyl sulfate (IS) and p-cresyl sulfate (PCS), small gut-derived € uremic solutes', and the high incidence of uremic cardiomyopathy in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). IS and PCS are derived from the metabolism of dietary components (tryptophan and tyrosine) by gut bacteria. This pilot study was designed to examine the effects of a poorly absorbable antibiotic (vancomycin) on the plasma concentration of two gut-derived € uremic solutes', IS and PCS, and on the composition of the gut microbiome. Methods Plasma concentrations of IS and PCS were measured by MS-HPLC. The gut microbiome was assessed in stool specimens sequenced for the 16S rRNA gene targeting the V4 region. Results The pre-dialysis mean plasma concentrations of both IS and PCS were markedly elevated. Following the administration of vancomycin (Day 0), the IS and PCS concentrations decreased at Day 2 or Day 5 and returned to baseline by Day 28. Following vancomycin administration, several changes in the gut microbiome were observed. Most striking was the decrease in diversity, a finding that was evident on Day 7 and was still evident at Day 28. There was little change at the phylum level but at the genus level, broad population changes were noted. Changes in the abundance of several genera appeared to parallel the concentration of IS and PCS. Conclusions These findings suggest that alteration of the gut microbiome, by an antibiotic, might provide an important strategy in reducing the levels of IS and PCS in ESRD.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1809-1817
Number of pages9
JournalNephrology Dialysis Transplantation
Volume32
Issue number11
DOIs
StatePublished - Nov 1 2017
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Nephrology
  • Transplantation

Keywords

  • atherosclerosis
  • chronic renal failure
  • gut microbiome
  • indoxyl sulfate
  • p -cresyl sulfate

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