BEP clade of the grass family (Poaceae) is composed of three subfamilies, i.e. Bambusoideae, Ehrhartoideae, and Pooideae. Controversies on the phylogenetic relationships among three subfamilies still persist in spite of great efforts. However, previous evidence was mainly provided from plastid genes with only a few nuclear genes utilized. Given different evolutionary histories recorded by plastid and nuclear genes, it is indispensable to uncover their relationships based on nuclear genes. Here, eleven species with whole-sequenced genome and six species with transcriptomic data were included in this study. A total of 121 one-to-one orthologous groups (OGs) were identified and phylogenetic trees were reconstructed by different tree-building methods. Genes which might have undergone positive selection and played important roles in adaptive evolution were also investigated from 314 and 173 one-to-one OGs in two bamboo species and 14 grass species, respectively. Our results support the ((B, P) E) topology with high supporting values. Besides, our findings also indicate that 24 and nine orthologs with statistically significant evidence of positive selection are mainly involved in abiotic and biotic stress response, reproduction and development, plant metabolism and enzyme etc. from two bamboo species and 14 grass species, respectively. In summary, this study demonstrates the power of phylogenomic approach to shed lights on the evolutionary relationships within the BEP clade, and offers valuable insights into adaptive evolution of the grass family.
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