Predicting Teacher Use and Benefit from Virtual Training in Classroom-Level Positive Behavioral Supports

Elisa S. Shernoff, Adam J. Lekwa, Stacy L. Frazier, Alban Delmarre, Joseph Gabbard, Daheng Zhang, Dulal Bhuamik, Christine Lisetti

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Virtual training models to support teachers’ use of positive behavioral supports provide an unprecedented opportunity to support teacher professional development via practice, reflection, problem solving, and feedback in an authentic learning context. However, little is known regarding factors that influence teacher use and benefit from these models. This study examined a newly developed training model, Interactive Virtual Training for Teachers (IVT-T), including teacher interactions with IVT-T, teacher and technology characteristics that predicted training dosage, and whether training dosage predicted reliable changes in use of positive behavioral supports. K-8th grade teachers (N = 27) working in three high-poverty schools had access to IVT-T over 8 weeks. Multilevel regression models indicated teachers used the system, on average, 50% less than what was recommended, and weekly usage patterns reflected inconsistent and ad hoc engagement with the system. Teaching experience was significantly negatively associated (b = − 0.09; p <.001) with duration of use while gamers were more likely to avoid using the system (odds ratio = 4.75, p <.01). Regression analyses indicated IVT-T dosage did not predict changes in teachers’ use of positive behavioral supports; however, meaningful improvements in teachers’ use of these strategies were observed over time. Study limitations and future directions for research and practice are discussed.

Original languageAmerican English
Pages (from-to)357-373
Number of pages17
JournalSchool Mental Health
Issue number2
StatePublished - Jun 2022

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Education
  • Developmental and Educational Psychology


  • High-poverty schools
  • Positive behavioral supports
  • Training dose–response
  • Virtual training


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