Primary blast causes mild, moderate, severe and lethal TBI with increasing blast overpressures: Experimental rat injury model

Vikas Mishra, Maciej Skotak, Heather Schuetz, Abi Heller, James Haorah, Namas Chandra

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Abstract

Injury severity in blast induced Traumatic Brain Injury (bTBI) increases with blast overpressure (BOP) and impulse in dose-dependent manner. Pure primary blast waves were simulated in compressed gas shock-Tubes in discrete increments. Present work demonstrates 24 hour survival of rats in 0-450 kPa (0-800 Paâ s impulse) range at 10 discrete levels (60, 100, 130, 160, 190, 230, 250, 290, 350 and 420 kPa) and determines the mortality rate as a non-linear function of BOP. Using logistic regression model, predicted mortality rate (PMR) function was calculated, and used to establish TBI severities. We determined a BOP of 145 kPa as upper mild TBI threshold (5% PMR). Also we determined 146-220 kPa and 221-290 kPa levels as moderate and severe TBI based on 35%, and 70% PMR, respectively, while BOP above 290 kPa is lethal. Since there are no standards for animal bTBI injury severity, these thresholds need further refinements using histopathology, immunohistochemistry and behavior. Further, we specifically investigated mild TBI range (0-145 kPa) using physiological (heart rate), pathological (lung injury), immuno-histochemical (oxidative/nitrosative and blood-brain barrier markers) as well as blood borne biomarkers. With these additional data, we conclude that mild bTBI occurs in rats when the BOP is in the range of 85-145 kPa.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number26992
JournalScientific reports
Volume6
DOIs
StatePublished - Jun 7 2016

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

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