Primary extramedullary leukemia of the prostate: Case report and review of the literature

Emmanuel T. Quien, Bruce Wallach, Linda Sandhaus, Pamela Kidd, Roger Strair, Parvin Saidi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

20 Scopus citations


We present the case of a 67-year-old male with primary extramedullary leukemia of the prostate gland, the first reported case in the literature to the best of our knowledge. His initial symptoms consisted of episodes of urinary retention. He underwent transurethral resection of the prostate, and a diagnosis of high-grade lymphoma was rendered. He then received a course of doxorubicin-based lymphoma chemotherapy regimen. However, based on a panel of immunocytochemical stains, a diagnosis of extramedullary leukemia or chloroma was confirmed. His bone-marrow examination at this point was normal. He underwent radiation therapy to the prostate with a total dose of 3960 cGy. Seven months after his initial presentation, he progressed to acute nonlymphocytic leukemia (ANLL), M2 by FAB classification. He was successfully treated with induction and consolidation chemotherapy with Ara-C and idarubicin, and was maintained in complete remission up to 19 months of follow-up. Eight other cases of prostatic leukemia reported in the literature are presented. Five cases occurred in association with ANLL, 2 cases as sites of ANLL relapse, and 1 case in association with myelodysplasia. The use of immunohistochemical stains has aided us in diagnosis of extramedullary leukemia. Surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy play complementary roles in the treatment of prostatic extramedullary leukemia.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)267-271
Number of pages5
JournalAmerican Journal of Hematology
Issue number4
StatePublished - 1996

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Hematology


  • acute leukemia
  • leukemic infiltration
  • nonlymphocytic leukemia
  • prostate neoplasms


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