Risk assessments were conducted for N,N-diethyl-meta-toluamide (DEET), triclosan, and acetaminophen to evaluate the risk from exposure to trace levels of these chemicals through drinking water consumption. We estimated exposure to these chemicals through drinking water consumption by generating distributions for key exposure parameters using Monte Carlo analysis. Body weight and water consumption was modeled using data from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) Exposure Factor Handbook. Water concentrations were derived from reported concentrations in streams. Dose-response was evaluated through extensive literature searches for toxicology data for each chemical. Acceptable daily intakes (ADIs) were then derived from the available toxicology data. The exposure distributions were compared to the ADIs to evaluate the potential risk to the population from drinking water exposure. ADIs of 0.100, 0.153, and 0.05 mg/kg-day were derived for DEET, acetaminophen and triclosan, respectively. The maximum estimated exposures (0.082, 0.834, and 0.193 g/kg/day for DEET, acetaminophen, and triclosan, respectively) were at least 100-fold lower than the corresponding ADIs. Based on these assessments, we conclude that there is minimal risk to human health from exposure to these chemicals at the reported concentrations in U.S. streams.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Ecological Modeling
- Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis
- Drinking water
- Risk assessment