Propionibacterium acnes susceptibility to low-level 449 nm blue light photobiomodulation

Jeffrey Boyd, Kelly A. Lewis, Nisa Mohammed, Primit Desai, Mackenzie Purdy, Wen Hwa Li, Tara Fourre, Davide Miksa, Sharron Crane, Michael Southall, Ali Fassih

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

1 Citation (Scopus)

Abstract

Background and Objective: Recent advances in low-level light devices have opened new treatment options for mild to moderate acne patients. Light therapies have been used to treat a variety of skin conditions over the years but were typically only available as treatments provided by professional clinicians. Clinical application of blue light has proven to be effective for a broader spectral range and at lower fluences than previously utilized. Herein, we tested the hypothesis that sub-milliwatt/cm 2 levels of long-wave blue light (449 nm) effectively kills Propionibacterium acnes, a causative agent of acne vulgaris, in vitro. Materials and Methods: Two types of LED light boards were designed to facilitate in vitro blue light irradiation to either six-well plates containing fluid culture or a petri plate containing solid medium. P. acnes. Survival was determined by counting colony forming units (CFU) following irradiation. P. acnes was exposed in the presence and absence of oxygen. Coproporphyrin III (CPIII) photoexcitation was spectrophotometrically evaluated at 415 and 440 nm to compare the relative photochemical activities of these wavelengths. Results: 422 and 449 nm blue light killed P. acnes in planktonic culture. Irradiation with 449 nm light also effectively killed P. acnes on a solid agar surface. Variation of time or intensity of light exposure resulted in a fluence-dependent improvement of antimicrobial activity. The presence of oxygen was necessary for killing of P. acnes with 449 nm light. CPIII displayed clear photoexcitation at both 415 and 440 nm, indicating that both wavelengths are capable of initiating CPIII photoexcitation at low incident light intensities (50 uW/cm 2 ). Conclusion: Herein we demonstrate that sub-milliwatt/cm 2 levels of long-wave blue light (449 nm) effectively kill P. acnes. The methods and results presented allow for deeper exploration and design of light therapy treatments. Results from these studies are expanding our understanding of the mode of action and functionality of blue light, allowing for improved options for acne patients. Lasers Surg. Med.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalLasers in Surgery and Medicine
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2019

Fingerprint

Propionibacterium acnes
Light
Acne Vulgaris
Phototherapy
Oxygen
Agar
Lasers
Stem Cells
Therapeutics

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Dermatology
  • Surgery

Keywords

  • C. acnes
  • P. acnes
  • blue light
  • low dose
  • low-level light therapy
  • photobiomodulation
  • porphyrin

Cite this

Boyd, Jeffrey ; Lewis, Kelly A. ; Mohammed, Nisa ; Desai, Primit ; Purdy, Mackenzie ; Li, Wen Hwa ; Fourre, Tara ; Miksa, Davide ; Crane, Sharron ; Southall, Michael ; Fassih, Ali. / Propionibacterium acnes susceptibility to low-level 449 nm blue light photobiomodulation. In: Lasers in Surgery and Medicine. 2019.
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title = "Propionibacterium acnes susceptibility to low-level 449 nm blue light photobiomodulation",
abstract = "Background and Objective: Recent advances in low-level light devices have opened new treatment options for mild to moderate acne patients. Light therapies have been used to treat a variety of skin conditions over the years but were typically only available as treatments provided by professional clinicians. Clinical application of blue light has proven to be effective for a broader spectral range and at lower fluences than previously utilized. Herein, we tested the hypothesis that sub-milliwatt/cm 2 levels of long-wave blue light (449 nm) effectively kills Propionibacterium acnes, a causative agent of acne vulgaris, in vitro. Materials and Methods: Two types of LED light boards were designed to facilitate in vitro blue light irradiation to either six-well plates containing fluid culture or a petri plate containing solid medium. P. acnes. Survival was determined by counting colony forming units (CFU) following irradiation. P. acnes was exposed in the presence and absence of oxygen. Coproporphyrin III (CPIII) photoexcitation was spectrophotometrically evaluated at 415 and 440 nm to compare the relative photochemical activities of these wavelengths. Results: 422 and 449 nm blue light killed P. acnes in planktonic culture. Irradiation with 449 nm light also effectively killed P. acnes on a solid agar surface. Variation of time or intensity of light exposure resulted in a fluence-dependent improvement of antimicrobial activity. The presence of oxygen was necessary for killing of P. acnes with 449 nm light. CPIII displayed clear photoexcitation at both 415 and 440 nm, indicating that both wavelengths are capable of initiating CPIII photoexcitation at low incident light intensities (50 uW/cm 2 ). Conclusion: Herein we demonstrate that sub-milliwatt/cm 2 levels of long-wave blue light (449 nm) effectively kill P. acnes. The methods and results presented allow for deeper exploration and design of light therapy treatments. Results from these studies are expanding our understanding of the mode of action and functionality of blue light, allowing for improved options for acne patients. Lasers Surg. Med.",
keywords = "C. acnes, P. acnes, blue light, low dose, low-level light therapy, photobiomodulation, porphyrin",
author = "Jeffrey Boyd and Lewis, {Kelly A.} and Nisa Mohammed and Primit Desai and Mackenzie Purdy and Li, {Wen Hwa} and Tara Fourre and Davide Miksa and Sharron Crane and Michael Southall and Ali Fassih",
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Boyd, J, Lewis, KA, Mohammed, N, Desai, P, Purdy, M, Li, WH, Fourre, T, Miksa, D, Crane, S, Southall, M & Fassih, A 2019, 'Propionibacterium acnes susceptibility to low-level 449 nm blue light photobiomodulation', Lasers in Surgery and Medicine. https://doi.org/10.1002/lsm.23087

Propionibacterium acnes susceptibility to low-level 449 nm blue light photobiomodulation. / Boyd, Jeffrey; Lewis, Kelly A.; Mohammed, Nisa; Desai, Primit; Purdy, Mackenzie; Li, Wen Hwa; Fourre, Tara; Miksa, Davide; Crane, Sharron; Southall, Michael; Fassih, Ali.

In: Lasers in Surgery and Medicine, 01.01.2019.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Propionibacterium acnes susceptibility to low-level 449 nm blue light photobiomodulation

AU - Boyd, Jeffrey

AU - Lewis, Kelly A.

AU - Mohammed, Nisa

AU - Desai, Primit

AU - Purdy, Mackenzie

AU - Li, Wen Hwa

AU - Fourre, Tara

AU - Miksa, Davide

AU - Crane, Sharron

AU - Southall, Michael

AU - Fassih, Ali

PY - 2019/1/1

Y1 - 2019/1/1

N2 - Background and Objective: Recent advances in low-level light devices have opened new treatment options for mild to moderate acne patients. Light therapies have been used to treat a variety of skin conditions over the years but were typically only available as treatments provided by professional clinicians. Clinical application of blue light has proven to be effective for a broader spectral range and at lower fluences than previously utilized. Herein, we tested the hypothesis that sub-milliwatt/cm 2 levels of long-wave blue light (449 nm) effectively kills Propionibacterium acnes, a causative agent of acne vulgaris, in vitro. Materials and Methods: Two types of LED light boards were designed to facilitate in vitro blue light irradiation to either six-well plates containing fluid culture or a petri plate containing solid medium. P. acnes. Survival was determined by counting colony forming units (CFU) following irradiation. P. acnes was exposed in the presence and absence of oxygen. Coproporphyrin III (CPIII) photoexcitation was spectrophotometrically evaluated at 415 and 440 nm to compare the relative photochemical activities of these wavelengths. Results: 422 and 449 nm blue light killed P. acnes in planktonic culture. Irradiation with 449 nm light also effectively killed P. acnes on a solid agar surface. Variation of time or intensity of light exposure resulted in a fluence-dependent improvement of antimicrobial activity. The presence of oxygen was necessary for killing of P. acnes with 449 nm light. CPIII displayed clear photoexcitation at both 415 and 440 nm, indicating that both wavelengths are capable of initiating CPIII photoexcitation at low incident light intensities (50 uW/cm 2 ). Conclusion: Herein we demonstrate that sub-milliwatt/cm 2 levels of long-wave blue light (449 nm) effectively kill P. acnes. The methods and results presented allow for deeper exploration and design of light therapy treatments. Results from these studies are expanding our understanding of the mode of action and functionality of blue light, allowing for improved options for acne patients. Lasers Surg. Med.

AB - Background and Objective: Recent advances in low-level light devices have opened new treatment options for mild to moderate acne patients. Light therapies have been used to treat a variety of skin conditions over the years but were typically only available as treatments provided by professional clinicians. Clinical application of blue light has proven to be effective for a broader spectral range and at lower fluences than previously utilized. Herein, we tested the hypothesis that sub-milliwatt/cm 2 levels of long-wave blue light (449 nm) effectively kills Propionibacterium acnes, a causative agent of acne vulgaris, in vitro. Materials and Methods: Two types of LED light boards were designed to facilitate in vitro blue light irradiation to either six-well plates containing fluid culture or a petri plate containing solid medium. P. acnes. Survival was determined by counting colony forming units (CFU) following irradiation. P. acnes was exposed in the presence and absence of oxygen. Coproporphyrin III (CPIII) photoexcitation was spectrophotometrically evaluated at 415 and 440 nm to compare the relative photochemical activities of these wavelengths. Results: 422 and 449 nm blue light killed P. acnes in planktonic culture. Irradiation with 449 nm light also effectively killed P. acnes on a solid agar surface. Variation of time or intensity of light exposure resulted in a fluence-dependent improvement of antimicrobial activity. The presence of oxygen was necessary for killing of P. acnes with 449 nm light. CPIII displayed clear photoexcitation at both 415 and 440 nm, indicating that both wavelengths are capable of initiating CPIII photoexcitation at low incident light intensities (50 uW/cm 2 ). Conclusion: Herein we demonstrate that sub-milliwatt/cm 2 levels of long-wave blue light (449 nm) effectively kill P. acnes. The methods and results presented allow for deeper exploration and design of light therapy treatments. Results from these studies are expanding our understanding of the mode of action and functionality of blue light, allowing for improved options for acne patients. Lasers Surg. Med.

KW - C. acnes

KW - P. acnes

KW - blue light

KW - low dose

KW - low-level light therapy

KW - photobiomodulation

KW - porphyrin

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