Racial differences in hospice use and patterns of care after enrollment in hospice among Medicare beneficiaries with heart failure

Kathleen T. Unroe, Melissa A. Greiner, Kimberly S. Johnson, Lesley H. Curtis, Soko Setoguchi Iwata

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

30 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: We examined racial differences in patterns of care and resource use among Medicare beneficiaries with heart failure after enrollment in hospice. Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of a 5% nationally representative sample of Medicare beneficiaries with heart failure who died between 2000 and 2008. Outcomes of interest included adjusted and unadjusted associations of race with hospice enrollment for any diagnosis, disenrollment, and resource use after enrollment. Results: The study population included 219,275 Medicare beneficiaries with heart failure, of whom 31.4% of white patients and 24.3% of nonwhite patients enrolled in hospice in the last 6 months of life (P < .001). Despite increasing rates of hospice use for both white and nonwhite patients, nonwhite patients were 20% less likely to enroll in hospice (adjusted relative risk, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.79-0.82). After enrollment, nonwhite patients were more likely to have an emergency department visit (42.6% vs 33.9%; P<.001), to be hospitalized (46.8% vs 38.5%; P<.001), and to have an intensive care unit stay (16.9% vs 13.3%; P<.001). These differences persisted after adjustment for patient characteristics. Nonwhite patients were also more likely to disenroll from hospice (11.6% vs 7.2%; P<.001). Among patients who remained in hospice until death, nonwhite patients had higher rates of acute care resource use and higher overall costs. Conclusion: Rates of hospice use have increased over time for both white and nonwhite patients. Nonwhite patients were less likely than white patients to enroll in hospice and had higher resource use after electing hospice care, regardless of disenrollment status.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalAmerican heart journal
Volume163
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2012

Fingerprint

Hospices
Medicare
Heart Failure
Hospice Care
Intensive Care Units
Hospital Emergency Service
Cohort Studies
Retrospective Studies

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

Cite this

Unroe, Kathleen T. ; Greiner, Melissa A. ; Johnson, Kimberly S. ; Curtis, Lesley H. ; Setoguchi Iwata, Soko. / Racial differences in hospice use and patterns of care after enrollment in hospice among Medicare beneficiaries with heart failure. In: American heart journal. 2012 ; Vol. 163, No. 6.
@article{50b9bd69e3594f738f4d31492ca59af4,
title = "Racial differences in hospice use and patterns of care after enrollment in hospice among Medicare beneficiaries with heart failure",
abstract = "Background: We examined racial differences in patterns of care and resource use among Medicare beneficiaries with heart failure after enrollment in hospice. Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of a 5{\%} nationally representative sample of Medicare beneficiaries with heart failure who died between 2000 and 2008. Outcomes of interest included adjusted and unadjusted associations of race with hospice enrollment for any diagnosis, disenrollment, and resource use after enrollment. Results: The study population included 219,275 Medicare beneficiaries with heart failure, of whom 31.4{\%} of white patients and 24.3{\%} of nonwhite patients enrolled in hospice in the last 6 months of life (P < .001). Despite increasing rates of hospice use for both white and nonwhite patients, nonwhite patients were 20{\%} less likely to enroll in hospice (adjusted relative risk, 0.80; 95{\%} CI, 0.79-0.82). After enrollment, nonwhite patients were more likely to have an emergency department visit (42.6{\%} vs 33.9{\%}; P<.001), to be hospitalized (46.8{\%} vs 38.5{\%}; P<.001), and to have an intensive care unit stay (16.9{\%} vs 13.3{\%}; P<.001). These differences persisted after adjustment for patient characteristics. Nonwhite patients were also more likely to disenroll from hospice (11.6{\%} vs 7.2{\%}; P<.001). Among patients who remained in hospice until death, nonwhite patients had higher rates of acute care resource use and higher overall costs. Conclusion: Rates of hospice use have increased over time for both white and nonwhite patients. Nonwhite patients were less likely than white patients to enroll in hospice and had higher resource use after electing hospice care, regardless of disenrollment status.",
author = "Unroe, {Kathleen T.} and Greiner, {Melissa A.} and Johnson, {Kimberly S.} and Curtis, {Lesley H.} and {Setoguchi Iwata}, Soko",
year = "2012",
month = "1",
day = "1",
doi = "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ahj.2012.03.006",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "163",
journal = "American Heart Journal",
issn = "0002-8703",
publisher = "Mosby Inc.",
number = "6",

}

Racial differences in hospice use and patterns of care after enrollment in hospice among Medicare beneficiaries with heart failure. / Unroe, Kathleen T.; Greiner, Melissa A.; Johnson, Kimberly S.; Curtis, Lesley H.; Setoguchi Iwata, Soko.

In: American heart journal, Vol. 163, No. 6, 01.01.2012.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Racial differences in hospice use and patterns of care after enrollment in hospice among Medicare beneficiaries with heart failure

AU - Unroe, Kathleen T.

AU - Greiner, Melissa A.

AU - Johnson, Kimberly S.

AU - Curtis, Lesley H.

AU - Setoguchi Iwata, Soko

PY - 2012/1/1

Y1 - 2012/1/1

N2 - Background: We examined racial differences in patterns of care and resource use among Medicare beneficiaries with heart failure after enrollment in hospice. Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of a 5% nationally representative sample of Medicare beneficiaries with heart failure who died between 2000 and 2008. Outcomes of interest included adjusted and unadjusted associations of race with hospice enrollment for any diagnosis, disenrollment, and resource use after enrollment. Results: The study population included 219,275 Medicare beneficiaries with heart failure, of whom 31.4% of white patients and 24.3% of nonwhite patients enrolled in hospice in the last 6 months of life (P < .001). Despite increasing rates of hospice use for both white and nonwhite patients, nonwhite patients were 20% less likely to enroll in hospice (adjusted relative risk, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.79-0.82). After enrollment, nonwhite patients were more likely to have an emergency department visit (42.6% vs 33.9%; P<.001), to be hospitalized (46.8% vs 38.5%; P<.001), and to have an intensive care unit stay (16.9% vs 13.3%; P<.001). These differences persisted after adjustment for patient characteristics. Nonwhite patients were also more likely to disenroll from hospice (11.6% vs 7.2%; P<.001). Among patients who remained in hospice until death, nonwhite patients had higher rates of acute care resource use and higher overall costs. Conclusion: Rates of hospice use have increased over time for both white and nonwhite patients. Nonwhite patients were less likely than white patients to enroll in hospice and had higher resource use after electing hospice care, regardless of disenrollment status.

AB - Background: We examined racial differences in patterns of care and resource use among Medicare beneficiaries with heart failure after enrollment in hospice. Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of a 5% nationally representative sample of Medicare beneficiaries with heart failure who died between 2000 and 2008. Outcomes of interest included adjusted and unadjusted associations of race with hospice enrollment for any diagnosis, disenrollment, and resource use after enrollment. Results: The study population included 219,275 Medicare beneficiaries with heart failure, of whom 31.4% of white patients and 24.3% of nonwhite patients enrolled in hospice in the last 6 months of life (P < .001). Despite increasing rates of hospice use for both white and nonwhite patients, nonwhite patients were 20% less likely to enroll in hospice (adjusted relative risk, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.79-0.82). After enrollment, nonwhite patients were more likely to have an emergency department visit (42.6% vs 33.9%; P<.001), to be hospitalized (46.8% vs 38.5%; P<.001), and to have an intensive care unit stay (16.9% vs 13.3%; P<.001). These differences persisted after adjustment for patient characteristics. Nonwhite patients were also more likely to disenroll from hospice (11.6% vs 7.2%; P<.001). Among patients who remained in hospice until death, nonwhite patients had higher rates of acute care resource use and higher overall costs. Conclusion: Rates of hospice use have increased over time for both white and nonwhite patients. Nonwhite patients were less likely than white patients to enroll in hospice and had higher resource use after electing hospice care, regardless of disenrollment status.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84862537737&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84862537737&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ahj.2012.03.006

DO - https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ahj.2012.03.006

M3 - Article

C2 - 22709751

VL - 163

JO - American Heart Journal

JF - American Heart Journal

SN - 0002-8703

IS - 6

ER -