Regulation of Αlpha-Synuclein Gene (SNCA) by Epigenetic Modifier TET1 in Parkinson Disease

Subhrangshu Guhathakurta, Min Kyung Song, Sambuddha Basu, Goun Je, Ana Clara Cristovao, Yoon Seong Kim

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Purpose: Deregulation of SNCA encoding α-synuclein (α-SYN) has been associated with both the familial and sporadic forms of Parkinson disease (PD). Epigenetic regulation plays a crucial role in PD. The intron1 of SNCA harbors a large unmethylated CpG island. Ten-eleven translocation methylcytosine dioxygenase 1 (TET1), a CpG island binding protein, can repress gene expression by occupying hypomethylated CpG-rich promoters, and therefore SNCA could be a target for TET1. We investigated whether TET1 binds to SNCA-intron1 and regulates gene expression. Methods: The dopaminergic neuronal cell line, ReNcell VM, was used. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), real time-quantitative PCR, Western blot, dot-blot, and Chromatin immunoprecipitation were conducted. The substantia nigra tissues of postmortem PD samples were used to confirm the level of TET1 expression. Results: In the human dopaminergic cell line, ReNcell VM, overexpression of the DNA-binding domain of TET1 (TET1-CXXC) led to significant repression of α-SYN. On the contrary, knocking down of TET1 led to significantly higher expression of α-SYN. However, overexpression of the DNA-hydroxymethylating catalytic domain of TET1 failed to change the expression of α-SYN. Altogether, we showed that TET1 is a repressor for SNCA, and a CXXC domain of TET1 is the primary mediator for this repressive action independent of its hydroxymethylation activity. TET1 levels in PD patients are significantly lower than that in the controls. Conclusions: We identified that TET1 acts as a repressor for SNCA by binding the intron1 regions of the gene. As a high level of α-SYN is strongly implicated in the pathogenesis of PD, discovering a repressor for the gene encoding α-SYN is highly important for developing novel therapeutic strategies for the disease.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)S85-S93
JournalInternational Neurourology Journal
Issue numberS2
StatePublished - Nov 2022
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neurology
  • Clinical Neurology
  • Urology


  • Parkinson disease
  • Repressor
  • TET1
  • Αlpha-synuclein


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