Sensitivity Analysis of Relative Accommodation and Vergence

George K. Hung, Kenneth J. Ciuffreda

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23 Scopus citations


A sensitivity analysis was performed to determine the variation in response to changes in parameter values of a previously developed nonlinear static model of accommodation and vergence. To determine normal behavior, model simulation responses were computed using previously obtained parameter values in 4 subjects under 2 conditions. In the first, relative accommodation was evaluated by maintaining the vergence stimulus constant at 2.5 meter angles (MA) and varying the accommodative stimulus from –2.5 to 2.5 diopters (D) in 0.25-D steps. In the second, relative vergence was evaluated by maintaining the accommodative stimulus constant at 2.5 D and varying the vergence stimulus from 25 prism diopters (PD) base-in to 25 PD base-out in 5-PD steps. Sensitivity of the model parameters, consisting of controller gains for accommodation (ACG) and vergence (VCG), crosslink gains for accommodation-to-vergence (AC) and vergence-to-accommodation (CA), deadspace operators for accommodation (AE ± AD) and vergence (VE ● VD), and the tonic levels for accommodation (ABIAS) and vergence (VBIAS) were assessed by varying them at 50% and 150% of their normal values. It was found that the accommodation and vergence systems were most sensitive to variation in crosslink gain, moderately sensitive to variation in controller gain and tonic level, and least sensitive to variation in size of the deadspace. These results may provide a quantitative basis for the occurrence of ocular dysfunctions associated with abnormal crosslink gains, such as strabismus, in clinic patients.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)241-248
Number of pages8
JournalIEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering
Issue number3
StatePublished - Mar 1994

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Biomedical Engineering


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