N,N,N′,N′-Tetramethylimidazolidinium dichloride (1-Im-1 2Cl) has been studied as a model system for cationanion interactions in the interfacial regions of gemini micelles by X-ray crystallography, density functional theory (DFT) calculations, and infrared spectroscopy. Single crystals of 1-Im-1 2Cl contain 1-Im-1 dications, whose five-membered rings adopt a distorted envelope conformation. Eight chloride anions surround each dication, two of which are cradled above and below the five-membered ring (apical) and six of which are dispersed about the periphery of the ring (equatorial). The cations and anions are linked in the solid state by an extensive network of weak C-H⋯Cl hydrogen bonds that involve all of the H atoms of the dication. The calculated (DFT at the 6-31+G(d) level) structure of the asymmetric unit, which consists of a dication and two apical chloride ions, closely resembles the equivalent unit in the crystal structure with respect to bond distances and angles, the conformation of the 1-Im-1 ring, and the nature and location of the C-H⋯C1 hydrogen bonds. The calculated IR spectrum predicts a number of absorptions in the 3000 cm-1 region, assigned as C-H⋯Cl stretching modes, which are consistent with the presence of an intense band in the observed IR spectrum of the crystals. Over all, this study supports the notion that apical chloride ions interact more strongly with gemini surfactant headgroups by forming multiple hydrogen bonds in ion pairs of a type that cannot be present in the corresponding ion pairs of quaternary headgroups with counterions of single-chain surfactants.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
- Surfaces, Coatings and Films
- Materials Chemistry