Substance abuse treatment providers' beliefs and objections regarding contingency management: Implications for dissemination

Kimberly C. Kirby, Lois A. Benishek, Karen Leggett Dugosh, Mary Louise E. Kerwin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

111 Scopus citations


Contingency management (CM) interventions are among the most effective methods for initiating drug abstinence, but they infrequently have been adopted by community drug and alcohol treatment programs. The primary purpose of this investigation was to determine the prevalence of specific beliefs that community treatment providers hold regarding contingency management interventions. We surveyed 383 treatment providers from three geographical areas of the United States regarding moral or ethical objections, negative side effects, practicality, limitations and positive opinions regarding tangible and social CM interventions. Results indicate that positive beliefs were surprisingly prevalent, with providers agreeing with an average of 67% of the positive statements regarding CM using tangible incentives and 54% indicating that they would be in favor of adding a tangible CM intervention to their treatment program. The most prevalent objections to incentive programs were that they cost too much, fail to address the underlying problems of addiction, and do not address multiple behaviors. Social incentives were viewed more favorably than tangible incentives and both were viewed more positively by providers who were supervisors, had advanced degrees, had more addictions experience, and had previous experience with tangible incentives. These findings have implications for improving the dissemination of this empirically-supported treatment.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)19-27
Number of pages9
JournalDrug and Alcohol Dependence
Issue number1
StatePublished - Oct 15 2006

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Toxicology
  • Pharmacology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health
  • Pharmacology (medical)


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