18F-Sodium fluoride PET/CT predicts overall survival in patients with advanced genitourinary malignancies treated with cabozantinib and nivolumab with or without ipilimumab

Mark Stein

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


Purpose: We evaluated the prognostic value of 18F-sodium fluoride (NaF) PET/CT in patients with urological malignancies treated with cabozantinib and nivolumab with or without ipilimumab. Methods: We prospectively recruited patients with advanced urological malignancies into a phase I trial of cabozantinib plus nivolumab with or without ipilimumab. NaF PET/CT scans were performed pre- and 8 weeks post-treatment. We measured the total volume of fluoride avid bone (FTV) using a standardized uptake value (SUV) threshold of 10. We used Kaplan-Meier analysis to predict the overall survival (OS) of patients in terms of SUVmax, FTV, total lesion fluoride (TLF) uptake at baseline and 8 weeks post-treatment, and percent change in FTV and TLF. Result: Of 111 patients who underwent NaF PET/CT, 30 had bone metastases at baseline. Four of the 30 patients survived for the duration of the study period. OS ranged from 0.23 to 34 months (m) (median 6.0 m). The baseline FTV of all 30 patients ranged from 9.6 to 1570 ml (median 439 ml). The FTV 8 weeks post-treatment was 56–6296 ml (median 448 ml) from 19 available patients. Patients with higher TLF at baseline had shorter OS than patients with lower TLF (3.4 vs 14 m; p = 0.022). Patients with higher SUVmax at follow-up had shorter OS than patients with lower SUVmax (5.6 vs 24 m; p = 0.010). However, FTV and TLF 8 weeks post-treatment did not show a significant difference between groups (5.6 vs 17 m; p = 0.49), and the percent changes in FTV (12 vs 14 m; p = 0.49) and TLF (5.6 vs 17 m; p = 0.54) also were not significant. Conclusion: Higher TLF at baseline and higher SUVmax at follow-up NaF PET/CT corresponded with shorter survival in patients with bone metastases from urological malignancies who underwent treatment. NaF PET/CT may be a useful predictor of OS in this population.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)178-184
Number of pages7
JournalEuropean Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 1 2020


All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging


  • Cabozantinib
  • Fluoride PET/CT
  • Genitourinary malignancy
  • Immune checkpoint inhibitor
  • NaF PET/CT

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