The internal relatedness of all things

Jonathan Schaffer

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

61 Scopus citations


The argument from internal relatedness was one of the major nineteenth century neo-Hegelian arguments for monism. This argument has been misunderstood, and may even be sound. The argument, as I reconstruct it, proceeds in two stages: first, it is argued that all things are internally related in ways that render them interdependent; second, the substantial unity of the whole universe is inferred from the interdependence of all of its parts. The guiding idea behind the argument is that failure of free recombination is the modal signature of an integrated monistic cosmos.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)341-376
Number of pages36
Issue number474
StatePublished - Apr 1 2010
Externally publishedYes


All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Philosophy

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