Ang II plays an important role in the pathophysiology of cardiovascular disease. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors lower Ang II levels by inhibiting conversion of Ang I to Ang II, but Ang II levels have been shown to return to normal with chronic ACE inhibitor treatment. In this issue of the JCI, Wei et al. show that ACE inhibition induces an increase in chymase activity in cardiac interstitial fluid, providing an alternate pathway for Ang II generation.
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